Validation of rapid point-of-care (POC) tests for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in field and laboratory settings in The Gambia,…

Posted by on 30 Jan 2015 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Validation of rapid point-of-care (POC) tests for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in field and laboratory settings in The Gambia, West Africa. J Clin Microbiol. 2015 Jan 28; Authors: Freeya Njai H, Shimakawa Y, Sanneh B, Ferguson L, Ndow G, Mendy M, Sow A, Lo G, Toure-Kane C, Tanaka J, Taal M, D’alessandro U, Njie R, Thursz M, Lemoine M Abstract Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Point-of-care tests for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) could be an ideal tool for large scale HBV screening/treatment programme in SSA. Using data from the PROLIFICA programme, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of three point-of-care tests (Determine™, VIKIA® and Espline®) for the detection of HBsAg in the field or laboratory settings in The Gambia. In the field, we used finger-prick whole blood for the Determine™ and VIKIA®, and dried blood spots for the reference standard test (AxSYM®HBsAg ELISA). In the laboratory we used serum for the Determine™, Espline®, and reference test (Architect® chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay). Of 773 participants recruited at the community and 227 known chronic HBV carriers (1,000 subjects in total), 293 were positive for HBsAg. The sensitivity and specificity of the Determine™ test was 88.5% and 100% in the field and 95.3% and 93.3% in the laboratory settings, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the VIKIA® test (in the field) and Espline® (in the laboratory) were 90.0% and 99.8%, and 93.9% and 94.7%, respectively. There was no evidence that one kit was better than another. Most of the patients with false negative results (18/19) were classified as inactive chronic carriers. In summary, the three point-of-care tests had acceptable range of diagnostic accuracy. These tests may represent an accurate, rapid and inexpensive alternative to serology testing for the screening of HBV infection at field level in SSA. PMID: 25631805 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Validation of rapid point-of-care (POC) tests for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in field and laboratory settings in The Gambia,…

Polyacetylenes and anti-hepatitis B virus active constituents from Artemisia capillaris.

Posted by on 08 Jan 2015 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Polyacetylenes and anti-hepatitis B virus active constituents from Artemisia capillaris. Fitoterapia. 2014 Jun;95:187-93 Authors: Zhao Y, Geng CA, Sun CL, Ma YB, Huang XY, Cao TW, He K, Wang H, Zhang XM, Chen JJ Abstract Three new polyacetylenes, 8-(Z)-decene-4, 6-diyne-1, 3, 10-triol (1), 1, 3S, 8S-trihydroxydec-9-en-4, 6-yne (2), 3S, 8S-dihydroxydec-9-en-4, 6-yne 1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), and one new glucosyl caffeoate, 1-O-ethyl-6-O-caffeoyl-β-D-glucopyranose (4), together with 34 known compounds were isolated from Artemisia capillaris. The structures of the new compounds were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, [α]D and CD experiments. Among them, 19 compounds showed activity inhibiting HBsAg secretion; 20 compounds showed activity inhibiting HBeAg secretion; and 25 compounds possessed inhibitory activity against HBV DNA replication according to our anti-HBV assay on HepG 2.2.15 cell line in vitro. The most active compound 12 could inhibit not only the secretions of HBsAg and HBeAg, but also HBV DNA replication with IC50 values of 15.02 μM (SI=111.3), 9.00 μM (SI=185.9) and 12.01 μM (SI=139.2). PMID: 24685503 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Polyacetylenes and anti-hepatitis B virus active constituents from Artemisia capillaris.

A new phenylethanoid glycoside with antioxidant and anti-HBV activity from Tarphochlamys affinis.

Posted by on 06 Jan 2015 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles A new phenylethanoid glycoside with antioxidant and anti-HBV activity from Tarphochlamys affinis. Arch Pharm Res. 2014 May;37(5):600-5 Authors: Zhou XL, Wen QW, Lin X, Zhang SJ, Li YX, Guo YJ, Huang RB Abstract A new phenylethanoid glycoside, named taraffinisoside A (1), together with five known glycosides were isolated from the stems and leaves of Tarphochlamys affinis. The structure of taraffinisoside A was identified on the basis of detailed spectral analysis. Compounds 1-4 and 6 showed potent antioxidant activities with IC50 values of 10.36, 19.73, 43.95, 15.30 and 46.04 μM by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl radical-scavenging assay. Compounds 1, 2 and 4 showed anti-HBV activities, with IC50 values of 0.50, 0.72 and 0.26 mM for HBsAg and 0.93, 0.42 and 0.07 mM for HBeAg, respectively. PMID: 23893479 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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A new phenylethanoid glycoside with antioxidant and anti-HBV activity from Tarphochlamys affinis.

[Auxiliary treatment of HBV correlated hepatic failure by Chinese herbs: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials].

Posted by on 06 Jan 2015 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles [Auxiliary treatment of HBV correlated hepatic failure by Chinese herbs: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2013 Nov;33(11):1449-56 Authors: Wang RY, Zhou YF, Fei YT, Sun KW Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbs as an adjuvant treatment for hepatitis virus B (HBV)-related hepatic failure. METHODS: Data were retrieved through the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Library, PubMed, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang Database, and ChiCTR by key words or free words such as hepatic failure, severe hepatitis, HBV, Chinese medicine, randomization, and control. Appendix references of related papers were taken as supplementary indices. According to requirement for Cochrane systematic evaluation, randomized clinical trials on assessing the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbs as main or adjuvant treatment in treating HBV-related hepatic failure were methodologically assessed, data extracted and analyzed. RESULTS: Totally 21 trials on Chinese herbal medicine therapy versus standard medical therapy (involving 1 881 patients) were included. Most trials had unclear risk bias. In 5 studies on the mortality, 3 trials showed that the mortality was lower in the test group than in the control group [RR 0.40, 95% CI (0.20, 0.79), P = 0.0002]. In 6 randomized control trials, totally 20 papers reported the control of complications. Eight results showed Chinese herbal medicine therapy had better effect in controlling complications. The recurrence rate and assessment of the survival quality were reported. Considering secondary indicators, four trials showed Chinese herbal medicine therapy had better effect in lowering the ineffective rate, decreasing total bilirubin (TBIL), and elevating prothrombin activity (PTA). Other prescriptive analyses found that the overall effect on secondary indicators was better in the test group than in the control group, but not all the indicators were statistically different. Adverse reactions were only reported in two papers, showing no severe adverse reaction. CONCLUSION: According to present evidence, till now, we could not judge whether Chinese herbs, as an adjuvant treatment, could do any favor for lowering the incidence and recurrence of hepatic failure patients, and improving their survival qualities. PMID: 24483102 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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[Auxiliary treatment of HBV correlated hepatic failure by Chinese herbs: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials].

[Intervention of chronic hepatitis B liver fibrosis patients in different stages by syndrome typing and different activating blood removing stasis…

Posted by on 06 Jan 2015 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles [Intervention of chronic hepatitis B liver fibrosis patients in different stages by syndrome typing and different activating blood removing stasis methods: a clinical study]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2013 Nov;33(11):1457-61 Authors: Liu SY, Zhang YQ, Liu YL, Guo P, Zhou CM Abstract OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy of treating chronic hepatitis B liver fibrosis (CHBLF) in different stages by syndrome typing and different activating blood removing stasis methods (ABRSM). METHODS: Totally 100 CHBLF patients of vital qi deficiency blood stasis syndrome (VQDBSS) treated at the Department of Liver Diseases, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences from July 2008 to December 2011, were randomly assigned to the treatment group and the control group, 50 in each group. Those in the treatment group were treated by self-formulated decoctions for activating blood nourishing blood (ABNB), activating blood removing stasis (ABRS), and activating blood softening hard mass (ABSHM) according to their stages of disease conditions (mild, moderate, and severe). Those in the control group were treated with Compound Biejia Ruangan Tablet (CBRT). Integrals of Chinese medical syndromes, liver functions [mainly including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin/globulin (A/ G)], ultrasonographic examinations of liver (mainly including echoes of liver, width of spleens, width of portal vein), four indicators of serum hepatic fibrosis [including serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), type IV collagen (IV-C), type III collagen peptide (P-III-P)] were statistically analyzed. The therapeutic course was 6 months for all. RESULTS: Compared with before treatment in the same group, the integrals of Chinese medical syndromes both decreased after treatment in the two groups (P < 0.05). The width of spleens decreased in the treatment group more obviously after treatment than before treatment (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the integrals of Chinese medical syndromes and the width of spleens were more obviously improved in the treatment group, showing statistical difference (P < 0.05). Compared with before treatment in the same group, levels of ALT, HA, and LN significantly decreased, and the level of A/G significantly increased after treatment in the two groups, showing statistical difference (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the A/G level, HA, and LN were more obviously improved in the treatment group, showing statistical difference (P < 0.05). The total effective rate was 76% in the treatment group and 46% in the control group, showing statistical difference (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Treating CH-BLF in different stages by ABRSM got better effect than using CBRT alone. It could favorably improve clinical symptoms of CHBLF patients and their serum biochemical indicators. PMID: 24483103 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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[Intervention of chronic hepatitis B liver fibrosis patients in different stages by syndrome typing and different activating blood removing stasis…

[Cluster analysis on TCM syndrome characteristics of chronic hepatitis B].

Posted by on 06 Jan 2015 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles [Cluster analysis on TCM syndrome characteristics of chronic hepatitis B]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2014 Jan;34(1):39-42 Authors: Wang EC, Tang L, Wang J, Zhang L, Cao CH, Feng QS Abstract OBJECTIVE: To explore the characteristics of Chinese medicine (CM) syndromes of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in Sichuan area, thus providing referential evidence for objective research of CHB. METHODS: According to the CRF chart, 1 064 CHB patients’ four diagnostic information from 8 clinical units were recorded in Sichuan region using cross-sectional method. The laws of CHB syndrome characteristics were explored using the K-means clustering analysis method. RESULTS: Based on the K-means cluster analysis, we found 8 categories that fulfill the clinical practice combined professional knowledge with experts’ opinions. They were Pi-Wei dampness heat (326 cases, 30.6%), Gan and gallbladder dampness heat (193 cases, 18.1%), Gan and Pi dampness heat (158 cases, 14.8%), Gan depression and Pi deficiency (92 cases, 8.6%), Gan depression transforming into heat (89 cases, 8.4%), Pi deficiency with dampness encumbrance (74 cases, 7.0%), dampness-heat combined with yin deficiency of Gan and Shen (73 cases, 6.9%), yang deficiency mingled with blood stasis (59 cases, 5.5%). CONCLUSION: The results of cluster analysis showed Pi-Wei dampness heat, Gan and gallbladder dampness heat, Gan and Pi dampness heat, Gan depression and Pi deficiency, Gan depression transforming into heat, Pi deficiency with dampness encumbrance, dampness-heat combined with yin deficiency of Gan and Shen, yang deficiency mingled with blood stasis were mainly syndromes of CHB patients in Sichuan area. PMID: 24520785 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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[Cluster analysis on TCM syndrome characteristics of chronic hepatitis B].

[Efficacy and safety of integrative medical program based on blood cooling and detoxification recipe in treating patients with hepatitis B virus…

Posted by on 06 Jan 2015 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles [Efficacy and safety of integrative medical program based on blood cooling and detoxification recipe in treating patients with hepatitis B virus related acute-on-chronic liver failure: a randomized controlled clinical study]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2014 Apr;34(4):412-7 Authors: Liu HM, Wang XB, Hou YX, Gao FY, Sun FX, Jiang YY, Yang ZY, Du HB, Wang XJ, Zhou GQ, Yang YY, Wang RB Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of integrative medical program based on blood cooling and detoxification recipe (BCDR) in treating patients with hepatitis B virus related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) of heat-toxicity accumulation syndrome (HTAS). METHODS: Adopting randomized controlled clinical design, a total of 105 HBV-ACLF patients of HTAS were randomly assigned to the trial group (64 cases) and the control group (41 cases). Patients in the control group were treated with comprehensive Western therapy, while those in the trial group were treated with comprehensive Western therapy plus BCDR. All were treated for 8 weeks and followed up for 40 weeks. Effect and safety of the treatment were assessed, including fatality, liver functions [total bilirubin (TBIL), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST)], and prothrombin activity (PTA) after treatment and at week 48 of follow-ups. RESULTS: After 8-week treatment, there was statistical difference in the overall fatality rate (15.63% vs 34.15%), the fatality rate in the mid-term (25.0% vs 64.7%), TBIL at week 8 (64.54 +/- 79.75), AST [at week 2: (178.97 +/- 44.24) U/L vs (288.48 +/- 58.49) U/L; at week 4: (61.65 +/- 27.36) U/L vs (171.12 +/- 89.11) U/L] and PTA [at week 4: (58.30 +/- 15.29) vs (42.56 +/- 15.27); at week 6: (60.77 +/- 20.40) vs (43.08 +/- 12.79)] (all P < 0.05). At week 48 of the followup, the fatality rate of the trial group (21.88%) decreased by 17. 14% when compared with that of the control group (39.02%; P < 0.05). No obvious adverse event occurred in the two groups during the 8-week treatment period. CONCLUSION: BCDR could significantly reduce the mortality of HBV-ACLF patients. PMID: 24812894 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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[Efficacy and safety of integrative medical program based on blood cooling and detoxification recipe in treating patients with hepatitis B virus…

Regulation of Multiple Stages of Hepadnavirus Replication by Carboxyl-Terminal Domain of Viral Core Protein in Trans.

Posted by on 30 Dec 2014 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Regulation of Multiple Stages of Hepadnavirus Replication by Carboxyl-Terminal Domain of Viral Core Protein in Trans. J Virol. 2014 Dec 24; Authors: Liu K, Ludgate L, Yuan Z, Hu J Abstract Mutational analyses have indicated that the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of hepadnavirus core protein, and its state of phosphorylation, are critical for multiple steps in viral replication. Also, CTD interacts with host proteins in a phosphorylation state-dependent manner. To ascertain the role of CTD in viral replication without perturbing its sequence and the role of CTD-host interactions, CTD of the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) or duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) core protein, either wild type (WT) or with alanine or glutamic acid/aspartic acid substitutions at the phosphorylation sites, were expressed in cells replicating DHBV with WT core protein. A dramatic decrease in phosphorylation of the DHBV core protein (DHBc) was observed when the WT and most HBV core protein CTD (HCTD) variants were co-expressed in trans, which was accompanied by a profound reduction of viral core DNA and in particular, the double-stranded DNA. One HCTD variant that failed to change DHBc phosphorylation also had no effect on DHBV core DNA. All WT and variant HCTDs and DHBc CTDs (DCTDs) decreased the DHBV covalently closed circular (CCC) DNA. Identification of CTD-host interactions indicated that CDK2 binding by CTD may mediate its inhibitory effect on DHBc phosphorylation and reverse transcription via competition with DHBc for the host kinase, whereas importin α binding by CTD may contribute to inhibition of CCC DNA production by competitively blocking the nuclear import of viral nucleocapsids. These results suggest the possibility of blocking multiple steps of viral replication, especially CCC DNA formation, via inhibition of CTD functions. IMPORTANCE: Mutational analyses have suggested that the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of hepadnavirus core protein is critical for viral replication. However, results from mutational analyses are subject to alternative interpretations. Also, how CTD affects virus replication remains unclear. In this study, we took an alternative approach to mutagenesis by overexpressing CTD alone in cells replicating the virus with the wild type core protein to determine the roles of CTD in viral replication. Our results revealed that CTD can inhibit multiple stages of viral replication, and its effects may be mediated at least in part through specific host interactions. They suggest that CTD, or its mimics, may have therapeutic potential. Furthermore, our experimental approach should be broadly applicable as a complement to mutagenesis for studying protein functions and interactions while at the same time providing a means to identify the relevant interacting factors. PMID: 25540387 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Regulation of Multiple Stages of Hepadnavirus Replication by Carboxyl-Terminal Domain of Viral Core Protein in Trans.

Study of ZHENG differentiation in hepatitis B-caused cirrhosis: a transcriptional profiling analysis.

Posted by on 23 Dec 2014 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Study of ZHENG differentiation in hepatitis B-caused cirrhosis: a transcriptional profiling analysis. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014;14:371 Authors: Lu YY, Chen QL, Guan Y, Guo ZZ, Zhang H, Zhang W, Hu YY, Su SB Abstract BACKGROUND: In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical practice, ZHENG (also known as TCM syndrome) helps to understand the human homeostasis and guide individualized treatment. However, the scientific basis of ZHENG remains unclear due to limitations of current reductionist approaches. METHODS: We collected the leukocyte samples of three hepatitis B-caused cirrhosis (HBC) patients with dampness-heat accumulation syndrome (DHAS) and three HBC patients with liver depression and spleen deficiency syndrome (LDSDS) for microarray analysis. We generated Gene-Regulatory-Networks (GeneRelNet) from the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of microarray date. Core genes were validated using anther independent cohort of 40 HBC patients (20 DHAS, 20 LDSDS) with RT-PCR. RESULTS: There were 2457 mapped genes were differentially expressed between DHAS and LDSDS (Fold change ≥ 2.0, P < 0.05). There were markedly different genes co-expression patterns in DHAS and LDSDS. Furthermore, three differential co-expression genes including purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP); aquaporin 7 (AQP7) and proteasome 26S subunit, non-ATPase 2 (PSMD2) were screened by GeneRelNets, and their mRNA expressions were further validated by real time RT-PCR. The results were consistent with microarray. The PNP (P = 0.007), AQP7 (P = 0.038) and PSMD2 (P = 0.009) mRNA expression is significant difference between DHAS and LDSDS using the non-parametric test. Furthermore, we constructed an mRNA panel of PNP, AQP7 and PSMD2 (PAP panel) by logistic regression model, and evaluated the PAP panel to distinguish DHAS from LDSDS by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis, which showed a higher accuracy (AUC = 0.835). Gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated that the DHAS is most likely related to system process while the functions overrepresented by LDSDS most related to the response to stimulus. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that there are particular transcriptional profiles, genes co-expressions patterns and functional properties of DHAS and LDSDS, and PNP, AQP7, and PSMD2 may be involved in ZHENG differentiation of DHAS and LDSDS in HBC. PMID: 25280538 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Study of ZHENG differentiation in hepatitis B-caused cirrhosis: a transcriptional profiling analysis.

[Therapeutic efficacy and quality of life investigation of traditional Chinese medicine-based therapy of chronic hepatitis B-related liver fibrosis].

Posted by on 17 Dec 2014 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles [Therapeutic efficacy and quality of life investigation of traditional Chinese medicine-based therapy of chronic hepatitis B-related liver fibrosis]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2014 Jan;22(1):30-2 Authors: An J, Ni W, Qiao J Abstract OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate the efficacy of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)-based therapy for treating liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and to investigate the patients’ perception of the treatment’s effects on quality of life (QoL). METHODS: A total of 430 patients with CHB-related liver fibrosis were randomly assigned to treatment groups for receipt of a 12-month course of the antiviral drug entecavir alone (control group) or in combination with the TCM Liuweiwuling tablets. Patients were assessed before (pre-treatment) and after therapy and the treatment-related differences in clinical manifestations, levels of liver function markers and liver fibrosis indexes, color ultrasound images, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA load were compared between the two groups by statistical analysis. The generic QoL scale developed by the World Health Organization (WHOQOL-BREF) was used to score the patients’ perceptions of treatment outcome. RESULTS: After treatment, the patients in both groups showed significant improvement in the majority of clinical manifestations (both P less than 0.05), with the exception of bloating. In addition, both groups showed significant improvements of liver function markers and in signs of liver fibrosis (both P less than 0.05). Both groups also showed significant reductions in the diameters of the portal and splenic (both P less than 0.05), as well as increases in the rate of undetectable HBV DNA (with a statistically similar outcome achieved in the two groups). Finally, both groups had higher QoL scores after treatment, with all assessed parameters except environment showing a significant improvement (all P less than 0.05). CONCLUSION: When used in combination with entecavir, the TCM Liuweiwuling tablet is a safe therapy for CHB and its related liver fibrosis and may help to improve the QoL of these patients. PMID: 24721240 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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[Therapeutic efficacy and quality of life investigation of traditional Chinese medicine-based therapy of chronic hepatitis B-related liver fibrosis].

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