Polymeric Nanocapsules for Vaccine Delivery: Influence of the Polymeric Shell on the Interaction With the Immune System.

Posted by on 07 May 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Polymeric Nanocapsules for Vaccine Delivery: Influence of the Polymeric Shell on the Interaction With the Immune System. Front Immunol. 2018;9:791 Authors: Peleteiro M, Presas E, González-Aramundiz JV, Sánchez-Correa B, Simón-Vázquez R, Csaba N, Alonso MJ, González-Fernández Á Abstract The use of biomaterials and nanosystems in antigen delivery has played a major role in the development of novel vaccine formulations in the last few decades. In an effort to gain a deeper understanding of the interactions between these systems and immunocompetent cells, we describe here a systematic in vitro and in vivo study on three types of polymeric nanocapsules (NCs). These carriers, which contained protamine (PR), polyarginine (PARG), or chitosan (CS) in the external shell, and their corresponding nanoemulsion were prepared, and their main physicochemical properties were characterized. The particles had a mean particle size in the range 250-450 nm and a positive zeta potential (~30-40 mV). The interaction of the nanosystems with different components of the immune system were investigated by measuring cellular uptake, reactive oxygen species production, activation of the complement cascade, cytokine secretion profile, and MAP kinases/nuclear factor κB activation. The results of these in vitro cell experiments showed that the NC formulations that included the arginine-rich polymers (PR and PARG) showed a superior ability to trigger different immune processes. Considering this finding, protamine and polyarginine nanocapsules (PR and PARG NCs) were selected to assess the association of the recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (rHBsAg) as a model antigen to evaluate their ability to produce a protective immune response in mice. In this case, the results showed that PR NCs elicited higher IgG levels than PARG NCs and that this IgG response was a combination of anti-rHBsAg IgG1/IgG2a. This work highlights the potential of PR NCs for antigen delivery as an alternative to other positively charged nanocarriers. PMID: 29725329 [PubMed]

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Polymeric Nanocapsules for Vaccine Delivery: Influence of the Polymeric Shell on the Interaction With the Immune System.

Anoectochilus roxburghii: A review of its phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical applications.

Posted by on 04 May 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Anoectochilus roxburghii: A review of its phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical applications. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017 Sep 14;209:184-202 Authors: Ye S, Shao Q, Zhang A Abstract ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Anoectochilus roxburghii (Orchidaceae), also known as Jinxianlian (Simplified Chinese: ) and Jinxianlan (Simplified Chinese: ), is valued in many Asian countries, where this plant species is used for medicinal, culinary, and ornamental purposes. As a food, A. roxburghii is widely used as a treatment booster and medicine because of its various beneficial properties; these include, most notably, the curative effects of heat dissipation and cooling of blood, elimination of dampness, detoxification, and immunity enhancement. AIM OF THIS REVIEW: This review aims to provide up-to-date information on the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical applications of A. roxburghii. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant information on A. roxburghii was obtained by an online search of worldwide-accepted scientific databases (Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Elsevier, Springer, NCBI, ACS Publications, CNKI, and Wanfang data). RESULTS: Phytochemical investigations have revealed that the major chemical constituents of A. roxburghii are polysaccharides, flavonoids, glycosides, organic acids, volatile compounds, steroids, triterpenes, alkaloids, and nucleosides. These compounds have been proven to be the main bioactive substances responsible for pharmacological activities such as antidiabetic, antilipemic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, liver protective, renal protective, immunomodulatory, abirritant, sedative, and antineoplastic effects. CONCLUSIONS: A variety of dosage forms of A. roxburghii are currently being applied to patients suffering from hyperuricemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic hepatitis B, Helicobacter pylori infection, cough-variant asthma, and other conditions. Nevertheless, further research is needed to clarify A. roxburghii absorption, distribution, metabolic, and excretion pathways. Moreover, the toxicology in A. roxburghii and A. formosanus are also in urgent need of research, especially long-term in vivo chronic toxicity tests need to be carried out. PMID: 28755972 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Anoectochilus roxburghii: A review of its phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical applications.

Novel treatment strategy with radiofrequency ablation and surgery for pregnant patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report.

Posted by on 04 May 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Novel treatment strategy with radiofrequency ablation and surgery for pregnant patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report. Surg Case Rep. 2018 May 02;4(1):43 Authors: Matsuo M, Furukawa K, Shimizu H, Yoshitomi H, Takayashiki T, Kuboki S, Takano S, Suzuki D, Sakai N, Kagawa S, Nojima H, Ohsuka M Abstract BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during pregnancy is rare, with a poor prognosis. Recently, however, increasing resection rates have improved survival rate. Currently, various surgeries are safely performed after the second trimester and termination of pregnancy is not always necessary. However, surgery is sometimes limited by gestational age or the patient’s will. When patients with HCC refuse surgery during pregnancy, we face specific problems with respect to curability and fetal life. Meanwhile, previous studies have revealed radiofrequency ablation (RFA) as a possible alternative to surgery for the treatment of early HCC and shown its favorable local control rate for advanced HCC. However, no case of HCC treated with RFA during pregnancy has yet been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present the case of a 33-year-old woman, who was a hepatitis B virus carrier. The patient had been followed up because HBV carrier could develop hepatitis or HCC. And she was diagnosed with a 40-mm HCC tumor at 17 weeks of gestation. She refused surgery because she was pregnant and wanted to continue her pregnancy; therefore, we performed RFA for the local control of her HCC at 17 weeks of gestation and radical surgery at postpartum. She delivered a healthy baby and has survived without recurrence for 6 years after the surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Surgery is potentially a curative treatment for HCC whether the patient is pregnant or not. However, various problems unique to pregnancy make it difficult to perform a straightforward surgery. Our case revealed that RFA can be safely performed in pregnant patients during the second trimester, and the combination of RFA and surgery can radically increase the resection rate of HCC during pregnancy. PMID: 29721779 [PubMed]

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Novel treatment strategy with radiofrequency ablation and surgery for pregnant patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report.

Notification and counselling of hepatitis positive blood donors, their immediate emotional response, contact-testing and their follow-up: Study from a…

Posted by on 25 Apr 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Notification and counselling of hepatitis positive blood donors, their immediate emotional response, contact-testing and their follow-up: Study from a tertiary care hospital! Transfus Apher Sci. 2018 Apr 13;: Authors: Tiwari AK, Bhardwaj G, Dara RC, Arora D, Aggarwal G, Bhargava R, Madan K Abstract INTRODUCTION: Post-donation counselling informs donors of unusual test results. Timely notification and counselling regarding their Transfusion Transmitted Infection (TTI) status is necessary for early clinical intervention in the donor and reducing risk of transmission. We share our experience with respect to Hepatitis B (HBV) and Hepatitis C (HCV) positive donors who were counselled and followed-up for clinical outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was prospective 2-year study in TTI positive blood donors. Confirmed positive HBV/ HCV donors were notified to attend the donor-clinic or to visit local hepatologist for further management. At donor clinic, donor’s immediate emotional response was observed; donors were offered contact-testing, associated risk factors were noted, counselled, referred to hepatologist, treated and followed-up for clinical outcome. RESULTS: Of 481 donors (0.91%) confirmed positives, 351 were contacted telephonically; 280 promised to attend donor clinic and 71 were referred to their local hepatologist. 145 donors attended the donor clinic, eventually. Most common immediate emotional response noted were ‘feeling of fear’ (55.2%) and ‘disbelief’ (35.2%). Most common associated risk factor was history of medical treatment/ injections without knowledge of sterilisation. Five donors availed contact testing and four (spouses in all four cases) came out positive. Of 98 donors contacted post-counselling; 89 went to hepatologist. No medication was advised to seven donors (low viral load), 59 donors completed treatment course and 23 donors were undergoing treatment at time of follow-up. Nine donors opted for alternative treatment or “no treatment”. CONCLUSION: Donor-clinic proved beneficial to substantial number of donors and their families. PMID: 29685393 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Notification and counselling of hepatitis positive blood donors, their immediate emotional response, contact-testing and their follow-up: Study from a…

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW: Drug induced liver injury: Alternative causes in case series as confounding variables.

Posted by on 03 Apr 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW: Drug induced liver injury: Alternative causes in case series as confounding variables. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Apr 01;: Authors: Teschke R, Danan G Abstract AIMS: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is rare as compared to the worldwide frequent acute or chronic liver diseases. Therefore, patients included in series of suspected DILI are at high risk of not having DILI, whereby alternative causes may confound the DILI diagnosis. The aim of this review is to evaluate published case series of DILI for alternative causes. METHODS: Pertinent studies were identified using a computerized search of the Medline database for publications from 1993 through 30 October 2017. We used the following terms: drug hepatotoxicity, drug induced liver injury, hepatotoxic drugs combined with diagnosis, causality assessment, and alternative causes. RESULTS: Alternative causes as variables confounding the DILI diagnosis emerged in 22 published DILI case series, ranging from 4% to 47%. Among 13,335 cases of suspected DILI, alternative causes were found more likely in 4,555 patients (34.2%), suggesting that DILI was probably not DILI. Biliary diseases such as biliary obstruction, cholangitis, choledocholithiasis, primary biliary cholangitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis were among the most missed diagnoses. Alternative causes included hepatitis B, C, and E, CMV, EBV, ischemic hepatitis, cardiac hepatopathy, autoimmune hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and alcoholic liver disease. CONCLUSIONS: In more than one third of published global DILI case series, alternative causes as published in these reports confounded the DILI diagnosis. In the future, published DILI case series should include only patients with secured DILI diagnosis, preferentially established by prospective use of scored items provided by robust diagnostic algorithms such as the updated RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method). PMID: 29607530 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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SYSTEMATIC REVIEW: Drug induced liver injury: Alternative causes in case series as confounding variables.

No longer ‘written off’ – times have changed for the BBV-infected dental professional.

Posted by on 13 Mar 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles No longer ‘written off’ – times have changed for the BBV-infected dental professional. Br Dent J. 2017 Jan 13;222(1):47-52 Authors: Bagg J, Roy K, Hopps L, Black I, Croser D, O’Halloran C, Ncube F Abstract There is a recognised potential risk of transmission of blood-borne viruses (BBVs) from infected healthcare workers to patients during exposure prone procedures (EPPs). The restrictions placed on performance of EPPs by infected clinicians in the UK have had a particularly significant impact on dentists because of the exposure-prone nature of most dental procedures and the difficulties in identifying alternative career pathways in the profession that do not involve EPPs. More recently, the significant positive impact of antiviral drugs on viral load, together with a re-categorisation of EPPs in dentistry have resulted in evolution of the guidance with a consequent significant improvement to the career prospects of dentists infected with BBVs. This paper provides an update for practitioners on the progress that has been made and outlines the current position with respect to practice restrictions. PMID: 28084394 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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No longer ‘written off’ – times have changed for the BBV-infected dental professional.

Safety and Immunogenicity of Seven Dosing Regimens of the Candidate RTS,S/AS01E Malaria Vaccine Integrated within an Expanded Program on Immunization…

Posted by on 13 Feb 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Safety and Immunogenicity of Seven Dosing Regimens of the Candidate RTS,S/AS01E Malaria Vaccine Integrated within an Expanded Program on Immunization Regimen: A Phase II, Single-Center, Open, Controlled Trial in Infants in Malawi. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018 Feb 09;: Authors: Witte D, Cunliffe NA, Turner AM, Ngulube E, Ofori-Anyinam O, Vekemans J, Chimpeni P, Lievens M, Wilson TP, Njiramʼmadzi J, Mendoza YG, Leach A Abstract BACKGROUND: In a phase III trial, the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine produced lower anti-circumsporozoite (CS) antibody titres when co-administered with Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) vaccines (0,1,2-month schedule) at 6-12 weeks compared to 5-17 months at first vaccination. Alternative infant immunisation schedules within the EPI were investigated. METHODS: This phase II, open, single site (Blantyre, Malawi) trial was conducted in infants aged 1-7 days. Subjects were equally randomised across seven groups to receive three doses of RTS,S/AS01E at time points that included ≤7 days, 6, 10, 14, 26 weeks, and 9 months. All RTS,S/AS01E groups plus a control group (without RTS,S/AS01E) received BCG+OPV at ≤7 days, DTPwHepB/Hib+OPV at 6,10,14 weeks and measles vaccine at 9 months; one RTS,S/AS01E group and the control additionally received hepatitis B vaccination at ≤7 days. Serum anti-CS antibody geometric mean concentration (GMC; ELISA) and safety were assessed up to age 18 months. RESULTS: Of the 480 infants enrolled, 391 completed the study. No causally related serious adverse event was reported. A higher frequency of fever within 7 days of RTS,S/AS01E vaccination compared to control was observed. Compared to the standard 6,10,14 week schedule, anti-CS antibody GMC ratios post-Dose 3 were significantly higher in the 10,14,26 week group only (ratio 1.80; 95%CI:1.24, 2.60); RTS,S/AS01E vaccination at ≤7 days, 10,14 weeks produced significantly lower anti-CS GMCs (ratio 0.59; 95%CI:0.38, 0.92). CONCLUSIONS: Initiation of RTS,S/AS01E vaccination above six weeks of age tended to improve anti-CS antibody responses. Neonatal vaccination was well tolerated, but produced a comparatively lower immune response. REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov identifier: NCT01231503GlaxoSmithKline Study ID number: 111315 (Malaria-057). PMID: 29432383 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Safety and Immunogenicity of Seven Dosing Regimens of the Candidate RTS,S/AS01E Malaria Vaccine Integrated within an Expanded Program on Immunization…

Chemical array system, a platform to identify novel hepatitis B virus entry inhibitors targeting sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide.

Posted by on 11 Feb 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Chemical array system, a platform to identify novel hepatitis B virus entry inhibitors targeting sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide. Sci Rep. 2018 Feb 09;8(1):2769 Authors: Kaneko M, Futamura Y, Tsukuda S, Kondoh Y, Sekine T, Hirano H, Fukano K, Ohashi H, Saso W, Morishita R, Matsunaga S, Kawai F, Ryo A, Park SY, Suzuki R, Aizaki H, Ohtani N, Sureau C, Wakita T, Osada H, Watashi K Abstract Current anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) agents including interferons and nucleos(t)ide analogs efficiently suppress HBV infection. However, as it is difficult to eliminate HBV from chronically infected liver, alternative anti-HBV agents targeting a new molecule are urgently needed. In this study, we applied a chemical array to high throughput screening of small molecules that interacted with sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), an entry receptor for HBV. From approximately 30,000 compounds, we identified 74 candidates for NTCP interactants, and five out of these were shown to inhibit HBV infection in cell culture. One of such compound, NPD8716, a coumarin derivative, interacted with NTCP and inhibited HBV infection without causing cytotoxicity. Consistent with its NTCP interaction capacity, this compound was shown to block viral attachment to host hepatocytes. NPD8716 also prevented the infection with hepatitis D virus, but not hepatitis C virus, in agreement with NPD8716 specifically inhibiting NTCP-mediated infection. Analysis of derivative compounds showed that the anti-HBV activity of compounds was apparently correlated with the affinity to NTCP and the capacity to impair NTCP-mediated bile acid uptake. These results are the first to show that the chemical array technology represents a powerful platform to identify novel viral entry inhibitors. PMID: 29426822 [PubMed – in process]

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Chemical array system, a platform to identify novel hepatitis B virus entry inhibitors targeting sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide.

Serum levels of angiotensin converting enzyme as a biomarker of liver fibrosis.

Posted by on 24 Jan 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Serum levels of angiotensin converting enzyme as a biomarker of liver fibrosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2017 Dec 28;23(48):8439-8442 Authors: Miranda AS, Simões E Silva AC Abstract The renin angiotensin system (RAS) is classically conceived as a circulating hormonal system involved in blood pressure control and hydroelectrolyte balance. The discovery that RAS components are locally expressed in a wide range of organs and tissues, including the liver, pointed to a role for this system in the pathogenesis of several conditions including hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. It has been widely reported that the classical RAS axis composed by the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-angiotensin (Ang) II-Ang type 1 (AT1) receptor mediates pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic, and pro-fibrotic processes. On the other hand, the alternative axis comprising ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas receptor seems to play a protective role by frequently opposing Ang II action. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is one of the leading causes of liver fibrosis, accounting for the death of nearly one million people worldwide. Liver fibrosis is a key factor to determine therapeutic interventions for patients with CHB. However, the establishment of non-invasive and accurate methods to detect reversible stages of liver fibrosis is still a challenge. In an elegant study published in the 36th issue of the World Journal of Gastroenterology, Noguchi et al showed the predictive value of serum ACE levels in detecting not only advanced stages of liver fibrosis but also initial and intermediate fibrotic stages. The serum levels of ACE might represent an accurate, non-invasive, widely available, and easy method to evaluate fibrosis related to CHB. Moreover, therapies involving the inhibition of the classical RAS axis components might be promising in the control of CHB-related liver fibrosis. PMID: 29358853 [PubMed – in process]

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Serum levels of angiotensin converting enzyme as a biomarker of liver fibrosis.

Acute-on-chronic liver failure in chronic hepatitis B: an update.

Posted by on 18 Jan 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Acute-on-chronic liver failure in chronic hepatitis B: an update. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jan 16;:1-10 Authors: Zhao RH, Shi Y, Zhao H, Wu W, Sheng JF Abstract INTRODUCTION: Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a common pattern of end-stage liver disease in clinical practice and occurs frequently in patients with chronic hepatitis B or HBV-related cirrhosis. New progress in recent years leads to a better understanding of this disease. Areas covered: This review updates the current comprehensive knowledge about HBV-ACLF from epidemiological studies, experimental studies, and clinical studies and provide new insights into the definition, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, nature history, pathogenesis, treatment and prognostication of HBV-ACLF. Expert commentary: Patients with chronic hepatitis B or HBV-related cirrhosis are at risk of developing acute-on-chronic liver failure, with multi-organ failure and high short-term mortality. The precipitating events can be intra-hepatic or extra-hepatic and the underlying chronic liver injury can be cirrhotic or non-cirrhotic. Host and viral factors contribute to the susceptibility of developing HBV-ACLF. Systemic inflammation is the driver of HBV-ACLF, which can be attributed to non-sterile and sterile factors. Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for HBV-ACLF. Cell therapy is a promising alternative to LT, but requires validation and still has concern of long-term safety. Other medical therapies, such as nucleoside analogue, artificial liver supporting and glucocorticoid may improve survival in a specific subgroup. New scoring systems improve the accuracy of prognostication in HBV-ACLF, which is critical for early identification of candidates for LT. PMID: 29334786 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Acute-on-chronic liver failure in chronic hepatitis B: an update.

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