[Effects of Anluohuaxianwan on transforming growth factor-β1 and related signaling pathways in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver…

Posted by on 06 Jan 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles [Effects of Anluohuaxianwan on transforming growth factor-β1 and related signaling pathways in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2017 Apr 20;25(4):257-262 Authors: Lu W, Gao YH, Wang ZZ, Cai YS, Yang YQ, Miao YQ, Pei F, Liu XE, Zhuang H Abstract Objective: The traditional Chinese medicine Anluohuaxianwan (ALHXW) has been used to treat liver fibrosis induced by chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the anti-fibrosis mechanisms of ALHXW remain to be investigated. This study used a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver fibrosis to explore the potential antifibrogenic mechanisms of ALHXW. Methods: Twenty-seven male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control group, model group, and treatment group (n = 9 per group). Rats in the model and treatment group were injected intraperitoneally with 40% CCl(4)(2 ml/kg), and rats in the control group were administered saline twice a week for 6 weeks. Starting at week 4 following model construction, rats in the treatment group received daily gavages with ALHXW solution (concentration 0.15 g/ml) daily, while rats in the control and model groups were given saline for a total of 6 weeks. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured from blood samples collected at the end of weeks 3, 6 and 9. Histopathological examination of liver tissue was performed to evaluate liver fibrosis at week 9. At the same time, the mRNA expression of TGF-β1 and Smads in liver tissues was quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and TGF-β1 protein level in the liver was measured by Western blot. Inter-group comparison was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) when the continuous data were normally distributed and satisfied the homogeneity of variance; otherwise, nonparametric tests were used. Categorical data were compared between groups using nonparametric tests. Results: ALHXW markedly alleviated liver injury in the treatment group after 3 weeks of therapy as indicated by a significantly reduced level of ALT compared with the model group [(162.98 ± 73.14)U/L vs (322.52 ± 131.76)U/L, P = 0.047], and a 39.8% reduction in AST level compared with the model group[ (537.56 ± 306.06)U/L vs (892.98 ± 358.19)U/L, P = 0.053]. Moreover, at the end of the 6-week therapy, histopathological diagnosis showed that liver fibrosis was significantly reduced in the ALHXW-treated group compared with that in the model group (P = 0.002). The relative expression of TGF-β1 mRNA and protein in the liver were significantly lower in ALHXW-treated rats than that in model rats (1.34 ± 0.31 vs 1.78 ± 0.45, P = 0.025; 0.39 ± 0.02 vs 0.57 ± 0.04, P = 0.003). Conclusion: ALHXW treatment can reverse CCl(4)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Its mechanisms of anti-fibrosis may occur through the inhibition of TGF-β1 synthesis and TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway, which in turn suppress the activation of hepatic stellate cells and thereby reverses fibrosis. PMID: 28494543 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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[Effects of Anluohuaxianwan on transforming growth factor-β1 and related signaling pathways in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver…

Isolation and Characterization of Antigen-Specific Plasmablasts Using a Novel Flow Cytometry-Based Ig Capture Assay.

Posted by on 30 Dec 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Isolation and Characterization of Antigen-Specific Plasmablasts Using a Novel Flow Cytometry-Based Ig Capture Assay. J Immunol. 2017 Dec 15;199(12):4180-4188 Authors: Pinder CL, Kratochvil S, Cizmeci D, Muir L, Guo Y, Shattock RJ, McKay PF Abstract We report the development of a novel flow cytometry-based Ig capture assay (ICA) for the identification and sorting of individual Ab-secreting cells based on their Ag reactivity. The ICA represents a fast and versatile tool for single-cell sorting of peripheral plasmablasts, streamlining subsequent Ab analysis, and cloning. We demonstrate the utility of the assay by isolating Ag-reactive plasmablasts from cryopreserved PBMC obtained from volunteers vaccinated with a recombinant HIV envelope protein. To show the specificity of the ICA, we produced Ag-specific Abs from these cells and subsequently verified their Ag reactivity via ELISA. Furthermore, we used the ICA to track Ag-specific plasmablast responses in HIV-vaccine recipients over a period of 42 d and performed a head-to-head comparison with a conventional B cell ELISpot. Results were highly comparable, highlighting that this assay is a viable alternative for monitoring Ag-specific plasmablast responses at early time points after infection or vaccination. The ICA provides important added benefits in that phenotypic information can be obtained from the identified Ag-specific cells that can then be captured for downstream applications such as B cell sequencing and/or Ab cloning. We envisage the ICA as being a useful tool in Ab repertoire analysis for future clinical trials. PMID: 29118244 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Isolation and Characterization of Antigen-Specific Plasmablasts Using a Novel Flow Cytometry-Based Ig Capture Assay.

Evaluation of alternative serum biomarkers to monitor the progression of chronic HBV and HCV infection.

Posted by on 10 Dec 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Evaluation of alternative serum biomarkers to monitor the progression of chronic HBV and HCV infection. Infect Genet Evol. 2017 Dec 05;: Authors: Tsiomita S, Georgopoulou U, Doumba PP, Koskinas J, Adamidis K, Papaloukas C, Thyphronitis G Abstract Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are among the most serious health conditions affecting about 600 million people worldwide leading to a number of severe liver diseases. Due to the lack of warning signs or mild symptoms during the early stage of the infection, a molecular signature associated with disease progression would be useful. Based on our recent paper where candidate biomarkers were determined through topological and modularity analysis of protein interaction networks (PINs), this study was focused on the evaluation of MIF, TNFRSF1A, FAS and TMSB4X as diagnostic biomarkers in chronic HBV and HCV infections. The aim was to establish a molecular profile, by combining those markers, that would discriminate the different stages during the progression of chronic hepatitis. One hundred and fifteen patients infected with HBV or HCV categorized into three groups: non-cirrhotic, cirrhotic and with HCC, and 20 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of the aforementioned factors were measured by ELISA. TNFRSF1A serum levels appeared statistically significantly increased in all patient groups compared to control group with a p-value of <0.05. Furthermore, the combination of TNFRSF1A and TMSB4X serum levels successfully classified 63, 47% of patients indicating an association with HBV and HCV infections. Thus, variations of serum levels of TNFRSF1A and TMSB4X could be associated with the different stages of the disease and may be utilized for further research. On the other hand, we found no contribution of MIF and FAS serum levels for successful classification of patients. PMID: 29221787 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Evaluation of alternative serum biomarkers to monitor the progression of chronic HBV and HCV infection.

Pathogen reduction and blood transfusion safety in Africa: strengths, limitations and challenges of implementation in low-resource settings.

Posted by on 02 Dec 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Pathogen reduction and blood transfusion safety in Africa: strengths, limitations and challenges of implementation in low-resource settings. Vox Sang. 2017 Nov 30;: Authors: Ware AD, Jacquot C, Tobian AAR, Gehrie EA, Ness PM, Bloch EM Abstract Transfusion-transmitted infection risk remains an enduring challenge to blood safety in Africa. A high background incidence and prevalence of the major transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs), dependence on high-risk donors to meet demand, suboptimal testing and quality assurance collectively contribute to the increased risk. With few exceptions, donor testing is confined to serological evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) and syphilis. Barriers to implementation of broader molecular methods include cost, limited infrastructure and lack of technical expertise. Pathogen reduction (PR), a term used to describe a variety of methods (e.g. solvent detergent treatment or photochemical activation) that may be applied to blood following collection, offers the means to diminish the infectious potential of multiple pathogens simultaneously. This is effective against different classes of pathogen, including the major TTIs where laboratory screening is already implemented (e.g. HIV, HBV and HCV) as well pathogens that are widely endemic yet remain unaddressed (e.g. malaria, bacterial contamination). We sought to review the available and emerging PR techniques and their potential application to resource-constrained parts of Africa, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of such technologies. PR has been slow to be adopted even in high-income countries, primarily given the high costs of use. Logistical considerations, particularly in low-resourced parts of Africa, also raise concerns about practicality. Nonetheless, PR offers a rational, innovative strategy to contend with TTIs; technologies in development may well present a viable complement or even alternative to targeted screening in the future. PMID: 29193128 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Pathogen reduction and blood transfusion safety in Africa: strengths, limitations and challenges of implementation in low-resource settings.

Improved performance of quantitative collagen parameters versus standard histology in longitudinal assessment of non-advanced liver fibrosis for…

Posted by on 02 Dec 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Improved performance of quantitative collagen parameters versus standard histology in longitudinal assessment of non-advanced liver fibrosis for chronic hepatitis B. J Viral Hepat. 2017 Nov 29;: Authors: Wang Y, Liang X, Yang J, Wang H, Tan D, Chen S, Cheng J, Chen Y, Sun J, Rong F, Yang W, Liu H, Liu Z, Zheng Y, Liang J, Li S, Liu Z, Hou J Abstract Monitoring longitudinal non-advanced fibrosis is a more common scenario in management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB), for which however, current evaluation methods generally lack sufficient performance. We conducted a proof-of-concept study to evaluate the performance of quantitative fibrous collagen parameters (q-FP) in the assessment. Data sets from a prior CHB trial (NCT00962533) with mostly mild-to-moderate fibrosis participants were used for this study. 301 subjects with paired liver biopsies were consecutively included. Of these, 139 subjects were used to establish the test and the rest for internal validation. Fibrosis change between baseline and week 104 of treatment was blindly assessed with q-FP and was compared with Ishak fibrosis staging. There were 70% and 93% subjects with Ishak F0-2 at baseline and week 104, respectively. For the test of the subjects, q-FP and Ishak staging showed no difference in determining the incidence of fibrosis regression (68% vs. 67%; difference=0.7%, p=1.00). Q-FP demonstrated that the regression was independently associated with the antiviral efficacy endpoint (OR 3.0, 95%CI 1.4-6.5, p=0.005), but Ishak failed the detection (OR 0.6, 95%CI 0.3-1.3, p=0.24). Moreover, q-FP directly revealed a higher fibrosis-resistance to antiviral treatment in virus genotypes C versus B and in males versus females. These results were confirmed in the validation subjects. Additionally, a functional model built on the test subjects showed an accuracy of 82% in stratifying fibrosis-reversibility of the validation subjects. In conclusion, q-FP could have improved efficiency and accuracy in the longitudinal assessment of mild-to-moderate CHB fibrosis, indicating a potential alternative to current evaluation methodologies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 29193542 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Improved performance of quantitative collagen parameters versus standard histology in longitudinal assessment of non-advanced liver fibrosis for…

Field performance of the Determine HBsAg point-of-care test for diagnosis of hepatitis B virus co-infection among HIV patients in Zambia.

Posted by on 28 Nov 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Field performance of the Determine HBsAg point-of-care test for diagnosis of hepatitis B virus co-infection among HIV patients in Zambia. J Clin Virol. 2017 Nov 16;98:5-7 Authors: Chisenga CC, Musukuma K, Chilengi R, Zürcher S, Munamunungu V, Siyunda A, Ojok D, Bauer S, Wandeler G, Vinikoor M, for International Epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS in Southern Africa (IeDEA-SA) Institutions Abstract BACKGROUND: We evaluated the field performance of a rapid point-of-care (POC) test for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) that could support decentralization and scale-up of hepatitis B virus (HBV) diagnosis in Africa. OBJECTIVE: To determine the field performance of the Determine HBsAg POC test for diagnosis of HBV co-infection among HIV patients in Zambia. STUDY DESIGN: Between 2013-2014, we screened HIV-infected adults for HBsAg at two urban clinics in Zambia. A subset were tested with the POC Determine HBsAg (Alere, USA) by finger prick in the clinic and HBsAg serology (Access2Analyzer, Beckman Coulter) at a reference laboratory. If either test was reactive, we determined HBV viral load (VL) and genotype. We described patient demographic and clinical characteristics (including liver fibrosis) and assessed the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of the Determine test. In secondary analyses, we assessed sensitivity among patients with replicating HBV (i.e., VL>20 IU/ml) and with high HBV VL (i.e.,>20,000IU/ml). RESULTS: Among 412 participants with both HBsAg tests, median age was 34 years, 51% were women, and median CD4 was 208 cells/mm3. By serology, 66 (16%) were HBsAg-positive. Overall Determine had 87.9% sensitivity, 99.7% specificity, 98.3% PPV, and 97.7% NPV. Six of 8 patients with false negative results had undetectable HBV VL and no evidence of significant liver fibrosis. Test sensitivity was 95.9% among the 51 with replicating HBV and 100% among the 28 with high HBV VL. CONCLUSIONS: Determine HBsAg is a cheaper alternative HBV testing option compared to the gold standard ELISA and has high specificity and good sensitivity in the field among HIV-infected individuals. PMID: 29175231 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Field performance of the Determine HBsAg point-of-care test for diagnosis of hepatitis B virus co-infection among HIV patients in Zambia.

Tenofovir Alafenamide Fumarate: A New Tenofovir Prodrug for the Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B Infection.

Posted by on 21 Nov 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Tenofovir Alafenamide Fumarate: A New Tenofovir Prodrug for the Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B Infection. J Infect Dis. 2017 Nov 16;216(suppl_8):S792-S796 Authors: Buti M, Riveiro-Barciela M, Esteban R Abstract Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF), a new prodrug of tenofovir and a potential successor of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), has been approved in the United States and Europe for treating adolescents and adults with chronic hepatitis B infection. TAF is formulated to deliver the active metabolite to target cells more efficiently than TDF at lower doses, thereby reducing systemic exposure to tenofovir. In patients with chronic hepatitis B, TAF appears to be as effective as TDF, with lower bone and renal toxicity. TAF has the potential advantages that dose adjustment is not required in patients with renal impairment, and monitoring can be less intense because of the better safety profile. Results from 2 large, randomized, phase 3 studies after 48 weeks of therapy have shown that TAF may be a good alternative to TDF for treating chronic hepatitis B. Whether the short-term benefits observed in these 48-week trials will translate into improvements in bone and renal health in patients receiving long-term treatment remains to be seen. PMID: 29156043 [PubMed – in process]

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Tenofovir Alafenamide Fumarate: A New Tenofovir Prodrug for the Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B Infection.

The future of viral hepatitis testing: innovations in testing technologies and approaches.

Posted by on 17 Nov 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

The future of viral hepatitis testing: innovations in testing technologies and approaches. BMC Infect Dis. 2017 Nov 01;17(Suppl 1):699 Authors: Peeling RW, Boeras DI, Marinucci F, Easterbrook P Abstract A large burden of undiagnosed hepatitis virus cases remains globally. Despite the 257 million people living with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, and 71 million with chronic viraemic HCV infection, most people with hepatitis remain unaware of their infection. Advances in rapid detection technology have created new opportunities for enhancing access to testing and care, as well as monitoring of treatment. This article examines a range of other technological innovations that can be leveraged to provide more affordable and simplified approaches to testing for HBV and HCV infection and monitoring of treatment response. These include improved access to testing through alternative sampling methods (use of dried blood spots, oral fluids, self-testing) and combination rapid diagnostic tests for detection of HIV, HBV and HCV infection; more affordable options for confirmation of virological infection (HBV DNA and HCV RNA) such as point-of-care molecular assays, HCV core antigen and multi-disease polyvalent molecular platforms that make use of existing centralised laboratory based or decentralised TB and HIV instrumentation for viral hepatitis testing; and finally health system improvements such as integration of laboratory services for procurement and sample transportation and enhanced data connectivity to support quality assurance and supply chain management. PMID: 29143676 [PubMed – in process]

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The future of viral hepatitis testing: innovations in testing technologies and approaches.

General practitioners’ perceptions of vaccination controversies: a French nationwide cross-sectional study.

Posted by on 07 Nov 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles General practitioners’ perceptions of vaccination controversies: a French nationwide cross-sectional study. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2017 Nov 02;: Authors: le Marechal M, Fressard L, Agrinier N, Verger P, Pulcini C Abstract OBJECTIVES: – We aimed to study general practitioners (GPs) perceptions of vaccines that have been the object of controversies in France. METHODS: – A cross-sectional survey in 2014 asked a representative national sample of GPs, randomly selected from the exhaustive database of health professionals in France, about their perceptions of the likelihood of serious adverse events potentially associated with six different vaccines: for two of them the association was based on some scientific evidence, whereas for the other four this is not the case. We performed a cluster analysis to construct a typology of GPs’ perceptions about the likelihood of these potential six associations. Factors associated with certain clusters of interest were identified using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Overall, 1,582 GPs participated in the questionnaire survey (1582/1712 GPs who agreed to participate, 92%). Cluster analysis identified four groups of GPs according to their susceptibility to vaccine controversies: 1) limited susceptibility to controversies (52%); 2) overall unsure, but rejected the association between Hepatitis B vaccine and multiple sclerosis (32%); 3) highly susceptible to controversies (11%); and 4) unsure (5%). We found that GPs who occasionally practised alternative medicine (OR=2.71 IC95%[1.65-4.45]), and those who considered information provided by mass media as reliable (OR=2.04 IC95%[1.65-3.99]) were more susceptible to controversies. CONCLUSIONS: – GPs had different profiles of susceptibility to vaccination controversies, and most of their perceptions of these controversies were not based on scientific evidence. PMID: 29104170 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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General practitioners’ perceptions of vaccination controversies: a French nationwide cross-sectional study.

Hepatitis B core protein as a therapeutic target.

Posted by on 27 Oct 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Hepatitis B core protein as a therapeutic target. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2017 Oct 25;: Authors: Mak LY, Wong DK, Seto WK, Lai CL, Yuen MF Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is difficult to cure, due to the presence of covalently-closed-circular DNA and virus-mediated blunting of host immune response. Existing therapies with nucleos(t)ide analogue or pegylated-interferon are not sufficient to achieve a high rate of HBV surface antigen seroclearance, a more desirable treatment outcome. Novel therapeutic agents targeting alternative viral replication steps are being developed. In this review, we will discuss the hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) as a therapeutic target. Areas covered: The basic structure and fundamental functions of HBcAg including nucleocapsid assembly, pre-genomic RNA encapsidation, reverse transcription, virion formation, cccDNA amplification, immune response regulation, and HBx protein interaction will be reviewed. Most of these are identified as therapeutic targets and tested in in vitro and in vivo studies, although clinical trials are scanty. Among the different components, the core protein allosteric modulators (CpAM) have been most widely investigated and appear promising in clinical trials. Expert opinion: The multiple and essential functions of HBcAg for HBV life cycle are important and attractive targets for HBV therapeutic interventions. Controlled trials involving CpAM are awaited. Apart from CpAM, drugs directed against different functions of HBcAg may be further explored to maximize the chance of cure. PMID: 29065733 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Hepatitis B core protein as a therapeutic target.

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