February 2015

Monthly Archive

Successful use of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive liver grafts – an effective source for donor organs in endemic areas: a single-center…

Posted by on 24 Feb 2015 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Successful use of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive liver grafts – an effective source for donor organs in endemic areas: a single-center experience. Ann Transplant. 2015;20:103-11 Authors: Jeng LB, Thorat A, Yang HR, Yeh CC, Chen TH, Hsu CH, Hsu SC, Poon KS, Li PC, Lai HC, Su WP, Peng CY Abstract Background Due to high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Taiwan, liver grafts from donors positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) without progressive disease can be effective alternative source of donor organs. This study aims to prove the safety of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using HBsAg-positive liver grafts and its long-term outcome. Material and Methods We studied 14 consecutive LDLT recipients that received HBsAg-positive grafts from November 2009 to December 2013 for various indications. All donors were chronic HBsAg carriers with normal liver function tests. Median follow-up was 46 months (range, 35-59). Results All the donors and recipients recovered well post-transplant with no reactivation of HBV to date. Two of the recipients died due to extra-hepatic recurrence of HCC. At median follow-up of 46 months, 4-year cumulative survival of recipients was 77.38%. Conclusions In endemic areas, HBsAg-positive donor organs can clearly be used effectively under viral immunoprophylaxis. HBV disease reactivation does not appear to be a threat even with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG)-free antiviral monoprophylaxis regimen. This study thus proves the safety and feasibility of the option of using HBsAg-positive grafts in high-prevalence areas. PMID: 25703063 [PubMed – in process]

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Successful use of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive liver grafts – an effective source for donor organs in endemic areas: a single-center…

Endogenous antiviral microRNAs determine permissiveness for hepatitis B virus replication in cultured human fetal and adult hepatocytes.

Posted by on 19 Feb 2015 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Endogenous antiviral microRNAs determine permissiveness for hepatitis B virus replication in cultured human fetal and adult hepatocytes. J Med Virol. 2015 Feb 17; Authors: Kumar M, Sharma Y, Bandi S, Gupta S Abstract Superior cell culture models for hepatitis B virus (HBV) will help advance insights into host-virus interactions. To identify mechanisms regulating HBV replication, this study used cultured human HepG2 cells and adult or fetal hepatocytes transduced with adenoviral vector to express HBV upstream of green fluorescent protein. The vector efficiently transduced all cell types. In HepG2 cells, replicative viral intermediates, nucleocapsid-associated HBcAg, and HBsAg were expressed. However, in fetal or adult hepatocytes, pregenomic HBV RNA and viral RNAs were expressed, but nucleocapsid-associated HBcAg in cells or HBsAg in culture medium were absent, indicating interruptions in viral replication due to possible microRNA-related interference. MicroRNA profiling demonstrated that a large number of microRNAs with antiviral potential were differentially expressed in hepatocytes after culture. In transfection assays using HepG2 cells, candidate antiviral microRNAs, e.g., hsa-miR-24 or hsa-miR-638 decreased the levels of HBV transcripts or HBV gene products. Since candidate microRNAs could have targeted interferon response genes as an alternative explanation interferon signaling was examined. However, HBV replication in cultured hepatocytes was not restored despite successful inhibition of JAK1/2-STAT signaling by the inhibitor, ruxolitinib. Therefore, HBV was unable to complete replication in cultured hepatocytes due to expression of multiple antiviral microRNAs. This mechanism should help understand restrictions in HBV replication for developing HBV models in cultured cells while providing frameworks for pathophysiological studies of HBV replication in subsets of hepatocytes or stem/progenitor cells during hepatitis. J. Med. Virol. 00: 1-16, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID: 25690916 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Endogenous antiviral microRNAs determine permissiveness for hepatitis B virus replication in cultured human fetal and adult hepatocytes.

Accuracy of transient elastography in assessing liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis: A multicenter, retrospective study.

Posted by on 17 Feb 2015 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Accuracy of transient elastography in assessing liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis: A multicenter, retrospective study. Liver Int. 2015 Feb 14; Authors: Seo YS, Kim MY, Kim SU, Hyun BS, Jang JY, Lee JW, Lee JI, Suh SJ, Park SY, Park H, Jung EU, Kim BS, Kim IH, Lee TH, Um SH, Han KH, Kim SG, Paik SK, Choi JY, Jeong SW, Jin YJ, Lee KS, Yim HJ, Tak WY, Hwang SG, Lee YJ, Lee CH, Kim DC, Kang YW, Kim YS, The Korean Transient Elastography Study Group Abstract BACKGROUND/AIMS: Transient elastography (TE) has become an alternative to liver biopsy (LB). This study investigated the diagnostic performance of liver stiffness (LS) measurement using TE in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B and C (CHB and CHC). METHODS: From April 2006 to June 2014, 916 patients (567 CHB and 349 CHC) who underwent LB and TE at 15 centers were analyzed. The Batts and Ludwig scoring system was used for histologic assessment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio indexes (APRI) were calculated. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used. RESULTS: The median age, LS value, and APRI score were 45 years, 8.8 kPa, and 0.61, respectively, in CHB patients versus 51 years, 6.8 kPa and 0.55, respectively in CHC patients. TE was significantly superior to APRI in CHB patients (AUROC 0.774 vs. 0.72 for ≥F2, 0.849 vs. 0.812 for ≥F3, and 0.902 vs. 0.707 for F4, respectively; all P<0.05). Furthermore, TE was significantly superior for predicting ≥ F3 stage (AUROC 0.865 vs. 0.840, P=0.009) whereas it was similar for predicting ≥ F2 and F4 stage (AUROC 0.822 vs. 0.796; 0.910 vs. 0.884; all P>0.05) in CHC patients. In CHB patients, optimal cutoff LS values were 7.8 kPa for ≥ F2, 8.2 kPa for ≥ F3, and 11.6 kPa for F4, versus 6.8 kPa, 8.6 kPa, and 14.5 kPa, respectively, in CHC patients. CONCLUSIONS: TE can accurately assess the degree of liver fibrosis in Korean patients with CVH. TE was superior to APRI for predicting each fibrosis stage. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 25682719 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Accuracy of transient elastography in assessing liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis: A multicenter, retrospective study.

The global burden of liver disease: the major impact of China.

Posted by on 12 Feb 2015 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles The global burden of liver disease: the major impact of China. Hepatology. 2014 Dec;60(6):2099-108 Authors: Wang FS, Fan JG, Zhang Z, Gao B, Wang HY Abstract Liver disease is a major cause of illness and death worldwide. In China alone, liver diseases, primarily viral hepatitis (predominantly hepatitis B virus [HBV]), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and alcoholic liver disease, affect approximately 300 million people. The establishment of the Expanded Program on Immunization in 1992 has resulted in a substantial decline in the number of newly HBV-infected patients; however, the number of patients with alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases is rising at an alarming rate. Liver cancer, one of the most deadly cancers, is the second-most common cancer in China. Approximately 383,000 people die from liver cancer every year in China, which accounts for 51% of the deaths from liver cancer worldwide. Over the past 10 years, China has made some significant efforts to shed its “leader in liver diseases” title by investing large amounts of money in funding research, vaccines, and drug development for liver diseases and by recruiting many Western-trained hepatologists and scientists. Over the last two decades, hepatologists and scientists in China have made significant improvements in liver disease prevention, diagnosis, management, and therapy. They have been very active in liver disease research, as shown by the dramatic increase in the number of publications in Hepatology. Nevertheless, many challenges remain that must be tackled collaboratively. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology and characteristics of liver diseases and liver-related research in China. PMID: 25164003 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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The global burden of liver disease: the major impact of China.