June 2017

Monthly Archive

Impact of using different blood donor subpopulations and models on the estimation of transfusion transmission residual risk of human immunodeficiency…

Posted by on 24 Jun 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Impact of using different blood donor subpopulations and models on the estimation of transfusion transmission residual risk of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus in Zimbabwe. Transfusion. 2016 Jun;56(6 Pt 2):1520-8 Authors: Mapako T, Janssen MP, Mvere DA, Emmanuel JC, Rusakaniko S, Postma MJ, van Hulst M Abstract BACKGROUND: Various models for estimating the residual risk (RR) of transmission of infections by blood transfusion have been published mainly based on data from high-income countries. However, to obtain the data required for such an assessment remains challenging for most developing settings. The National Blood Service Zimbabwe (NBSZ) adapted a published incidence-window period (IWP) model, which has less demanding data requirements. In this study we assess the impact of various definitions of blood donor subpopulations and models on RR estimates. We compared the outcomes of two published models and an adapted NBSZ model. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The Schreiber IWP model (Model 1), an amended version (Model 2), and an adapted NBSZ model (Model 3) were applied. Variably the three models include prevalence, incidence, preseroconversion intervals, mean lifetime risk, and person-years at risk. Annual mean RR estimates and 95% confidence intervals for each of the three models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) were determined using NBSZ blood donor data from 2002 through 2011. RESULTS: The annual mean RR estimates for Models 1 through 3 were 1 in 6542, 5805, and 6418, respectively for HIV; 1 in 1978, 2027, and 1628 for HBV; and 1 in 9588, 15,126, and 7750, for HCV. CONCLUSIONS: The adapted NBSZ model provided comparable results to the published methods and these highlight the high occurrence of HBV in Zimbabwe. The adapted NBSZ model could be used as an alternative to estimate RRs when in settings where two repeat donations are not available. PMID: 26801952 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Impact of using different blood donor subpopulations and models on the estimation of transfusion transmission residual risk of human immunodeficiency…

Construction of a hepatitis B virus neutralizing chimeric monoclonal antibody recognizing escape mutants of the viral surface antigen (HBsAg).

Posted by on 24 Jun 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Construction of a hepatitis B virus neutralizing chimeric monoclonal antibody recognizing escape mutants of the viral surface antigen (HBsAg). Antiviral Res. 2017 Jun 19;: Authors: Golsaz-Shirazi F, Amiri MM, Farid S, Bahadori M, Bohne F, Altstetter S, Wolff L, Kazemi T, Khoshnoodi J, Hojjat-Farsangi M, Chudy M, Jeddi-Tehrani M, Protzer U, Shokri F Abstract Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global burden on the health-care system and is considered as the tenth leading cause of death in the world. Over 248 million patients are currently suffering from chronic HBV infection worldwide and annual mortality rate of this infection is 686000. The “a” determinant is a hydrophilic region present in all antigenic subtypes of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and antibodies against this region can neutralize the virus and are protective against all subtypes. We have recently generated a murine anti-HBs monoclonal antibody (4G4), which can neutralize HBV infection in HepaRG cells and recognize most of the escape mutant forms of HBsAg. Here, we describe the production and characterization of the chimeric human-murine antibody 4G4 (c-4G4). Variable region genes of heavy and light chains of the m-4G4 were cloned and fused to constant regions of human kappa and IgG1 by splice overlap extension (SOE) PCR. The chimeric antibody was expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO)-K1 cells and purified from culture supernatant. Competition ELISA proved that both antibodies bind the same epitope within HBsAg. Antigen-binding studies using ELISA and Western blot showed that c-4G4 has retained the affinity and specificity of the parental murine antibody, and displayed a similar pattern of reactivity to 13 escape mutant forms of HBsAg. Both, the parental and c-4G4 showed a comparably high HBV neutralization capacity in cell culture even at the lowest concentration (0.6μg/ml). Due to the ability of c-4G4 to recognize most of the sub-genotypes and escape mutants of HBsAg, this antibody either alone or in combination with other anti-HBs antibodies could be considered as a potent alternative for Hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) as an HBV infection prophylactic or for passive immunotherapy against HBV infection. PMID: 28641998 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Construction of a hepatitis B virus neutralizing chimeric monoclonal antibody recognizing escape mutants of the viral surface antigen (HBsAg).

Enhanced antiviral and antifibrotic effects of short hairpin RNAs targeting HBV and TGF-β in HBV-persistent mice.

Posted by on 22 Jun 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Enhanced antiviral and antifibrotic effects of short hairpin RNAs targeting HBV and TGF-β in HBV-persistent mice. Sci Rep. 2017 Jun 20;7(1):3860 Authors: Ye L, Kan F, Yan T, Cao J, Zhang L, Wu Z, Li W Abstract The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic liver infection, which may lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current treatments including interferons and nucleotide analogs, have limited therapeutic effects, underscoring the need to identify effective therapeutic options to inhibit HBV replication and prevent complications. Previous animal models mimicking chronic HBV infection do not faithfully reflect disease progression in humans. Here, we used our established HBV-persistent mouse line with liver fibrosis to evaluate the efficacy of novel therapies. The combination of two short hairpin RNAs (dual-shRNA) against different coding regions of HBV delivered by a self-complementary AAV vector showed better antiviral effects than single shRNA both in vitro and in HBV-persistent mice. The dual-shRNA also exhibited stronger antifibrotic activity in vivo. Vector carrying shRNA against TGF-β, though did not inhibit HBV replication alone, enhanced the antiviral and antifibrotic activities of single and dual HBV shRNAs. Co-administration of TGF-β shRNA and HBV dual-shRNA decreased HBV DNA, HBV RNA, HBsAg, HBeAg, and liver fibrosis markers in serum and tissues, and improved liver morphology more effectively than single treatments. Our results suggest that the combination of shRNAs against HBV and TGF-β could be developed into a viable treatment for human HBV infection. PMID: 28634402 [PubMed – in process]

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Enhanced antiviral and antifibrotic effects of short hairpin RNAs targeting HBV and TGF-β in HBV-persistent mice.

Alternative treatment in Hepatitis B by using polyherbal formulation.

Posted by on 13 Jun 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Alternative treatment in Hepatitis B by using polyherbal formulation. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2017 Jan;30(1):49-54 Authors: Iqbal O, Nazar H, Afzal S, Usmanghani K Abstract The hepatitis B is most prevalent diseases (along with morbidities) in Asian countries. This research study has been conducted to provide an alternative treatment which is safe, effective and cost-effective to comprehend relations of disease, symptoms, patients response and the clinical response via better management of hepatitis B. The goal of this research is to evaluate efficacy and safety of herbal medicine as compared to allopathic medicine in patients suffering from hepatitis B. This was a single blind, randomized controlled clinical trial conducted at Shifa-ul-Mulk Memorial Hospital Hamdard University, Karachi and Dar ul Shifa Unani Dawakhana Karachi, Pakistan. The patients of both genders ranging from 25 to 50 years with symptoms and diagnosed for hepatitis B that fulfilled the criteria for membership, and consented for participation were registered. Ethical committee clearance and permission was obtained from the concerned committee at Faculty of Eastern Medicine, Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan. No significant difference was identified after treatment and it was found that the efficacy of Alpha (Control drug) is same as Safoof akseer e jigar (Test drug). The data offered support to the null hypothesis and therefore research hypothesis was rejected. According to the statistical analysis by chi square, hepatitis B was recorded as negative in 26 patients (57.77%) out of 45 patients by the use of Interferon Alpha (control therapy) and in 27 patients (64.28%) out of 42 patients by the use of Safoof akseer e jigar (test drug). Comparison of the data recorded of the patients was determined as both drugs showed significant improvement and p value>0.05. The efficacy response is equal in both drugs while test drug showed more safety response. It is concluded that Safoof akseer e jigar possesses as effective a therapeutic value in treating hepatitis B as allopathic medicine. PMID: 28603112 [PubMed – in process]

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Alternative treatment in Hepatitis B by using polyherbal formulation.

Occupational hazards of traditional healers: repeated unprotected blood exposures risk infectious disease transmission.

Posted by on 03 Jun 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Occupational hazards of traditional healers: repeated unprotected blood exposures risk infectious disease transmission. Trop Med Int Health. 2016 Nov;21(11):1476-1480 Authors: Audet CM, Salato J, Blevins M, Silva W, González-Calvo L, Vermund SH, Gaspar F Abstract OBJECTIVE: Healers provide support for acute and chronic illnesses in rural Mozambique, such as socially acceptable traditional ‘vaccinations’ (subcutaneous cuts in the skin to rub herbs directly into the bloody lesion). We aimed to document the frequency of blood exposure by traditional practitioners in Mozambique. METHODS: We conducted surveys with a simple random sample of 236 traditional healers in Zambézia province. Chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to compare ‘injection’ behaviours across districts. RESULTS: Healers treated a median of eight patients in the past month (IQR: 4-15). About 75% conducted ‘injections’. These healers ‘injected’ a median of four patients (IQR: 1-8), used a new razor a median of three times (IQR: 1-8), and almost never used gloves. Lifetime blood exposures among those who provided ‘injections’ during treatments were estimated to be 1758 over a healer’s career. CONCLUSION: The majority of healers are exposed repeatedly to patient blood. Given the high prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B and C virus, and other blood-borne agents, specific healer practices are an occupational hazard and reuse of razors is risky for their clients. PMID: 27580349 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Occupational hazards of traditional healers: repeated unprotected blood exposures risk infectious disease transmission.