December 2017

Monthly Archive

Isolation and Characterization of Antigen-Specific Plasmablasts Using a Novel Flow Cytometry-Based Ig Capture Assay.

Posted by on 30 Dec 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Isolation and Characterization of Antigen-Specific Plasmablasts Using a Novel Flow Cytometry-Based Ig Capture Assay. J Immunol. 2017 Dec 15;199(12):4180-4188 Authors: Pinder CL, Kratochvil S, Cizmeci D, Muir L, Guo Y, Shattock RJ, McKay PF Abstract We report the development of a novel flow cytometry-based Ig capture assay (ICA) for the identification and sorting of individual Ab-secreting cells based on their Ag reactivity. The ICA represents a fast and versatile tool for single-cell sorting of peripheral plasmablasts, streamlining subsequent Ab analysis, and cloning. We demonstrate the utility of the assay by isolating Ag-reactive plasmablasts from cryopreserved PBMC obtained from volunteers vaccinated with a recombinant HIV envelope protein. To show the specificity of the ICA, we produced Ag-specific Abs from these cells and subsequently verified their Ag reactivity via ELISA. Furthermore, we used the ICA to track Ag-specific plasmablast responses in HIV-vaccine recipients over a period of 42 d and performed a head-to-head comparison with a conventional B cell ELISpot. Results were highly comparable, highlighting that this assay is a viable alternative for monitoring Ag-specific plasmablast responses at early time points after infection or vaccination. The ICA provides important added benefits in that phenotypic information can be obtained from the identified Ag-specific cells that can then be captured for downstream applications such as B cell sequencing and/or Ab cloning. We envisage the ICA as being a useful tool in Ab repertoire analysis for future clinical trials. PMID: 29118244 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Isolation and Characterization of Antigen-Specific Plasmablasts Using a Novel Flow Cytometry-Based Ig Capture Assay.

Evaluation of alternative serum biomarkers to monitor the progression of chronic HBV and HCV infection.

Posted by on 10 Dec 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Evaluation of alternative serum biomarkers to monitor the progression of chronic HBV and HCV infection. Infect Genet Evol. 2017 Dec 05;: Authors: Tsiomita S, Georgopoulou U, Doumba PP, Koskinas J, Adamidis K, Papaloukas C, Thyphronitis G Abstract Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are among the most serious health conditions affecting about 600 million people worldwide leading to a number of severe liver diseases. Due to the lack of warning signs or mild symptoms during the early stage of the infection, a molecular signature associated with disease progression would be useful. Based on our recent paper where candidate biomarkers were determined through topological and modularity analysis of protein interaction networks (PINs), this study was focused on the evaluation of MIF, TNFRSF1A, FAS and TMSB4X as diagnostic biomarkers in chronic HBV and HCV infections. The aim was to establish a molecular profile, by combining those markers, that would discriminate the different stages during the progression of chronic hepatitis. One hundred and fifteen patients infected with HBV or HCV categorized into three groups: non-cirrhotic, cirrhotic and with HCC, and 20 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of the aforementioned factors were measured by ELISA. TNFRSF1A serum levels appeared statistically significantly increased in all patient groups compared to control group with a p-value of <0.05. Furthermore, the combination of TNFRSF1A and TMSB4X serum levels successfully classified 63, 47% of patients indicating an association with HBV and HCV infections. Thus, variations of serum levels of TNFRSF1A and TMSB4X could be associated with the different stages of the disease and may be utilized for further research. On the other hand, we found no contribution of MIF and FAS serum levels for successful classification of patients. PMID: 29221787 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Evaluation of alternative serum biomarkers to monitor the progression of chronic HBV and HCV infection.

Pathogen reduction and blood transfusion safety in Africa: strengths, limitations and challenges of implementation in low-resource settings.

Posted by on 02 Dec 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Pathogen reduction and blood transfusion safety in Africa: strengths, limitations and challenges of implementation in low-resource settings. Vox Sang. 2017 Nov 30;: Authors: Ware AD, Jacquot C, Tobian AAR, Gehrie EA, Ness PM, Bloch EM Abstract Transfusion-transmitted infection risk remains an enduring challenge to blood safety in Africa. A high background incidence and prevalence of the major transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs), dependence on high-risk donors to meet demand, suboptimal testing and quality assurance collectively contribute to the increased risk. With few exceptions, donor testing is confined to serological evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) and syphilis. Barriers to implementation of broader molecular methods include cost, limited infrastructure and lack of technical expertise. Pathogen reduction (PR), a term used to describe a variety of methods (e.g. solvent detergent treatment or photochemical activation) that may be applied to blood following collection, offers the means to diminish the infectious potential of multiple pathogens simultaneously. This is effective against different classes of pathogen, including the major TTIs where laboratory screening is already implemented (e.g. HIV, HBV and HCV) as well pathogens that are widely endemic yet remain unaddressed (e.g. malaria, bacterial contamination). We sought to review the available and emerging PR techniques and their potential application to resource-constrained parts of Africa, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of such technologies. PR has been slow to be adopted even in high-income countries, primarily given the high costs of use. Logistical considerations, particularly in low-resourced parts of Africa, also raise concerns about practicality. Nonetheless, PR offers a rational, innovative strategy to contend with TTIs; technologies in development may well present a viable complement or even alternative to targeted screening in the future. PMID: 29193128 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Pathogen reduction and blood transfusion safety in Africa: strengths, limitations and challenges of implementation in low-resource settings.

Improved performance of quantitative collagen parameters versus standard histology in longitudinal assessment of non-advanced liver fibrosis for…

Posted by on 02 Dec 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Improved performance of quantitative collagen parameters versus standard histology in longitudinal assessment of non-advanced liver fibrosis for chronic hepatitis B. J Viral Hepat. 2017 Nov 29;: Authors: Wang Y, Liang X, Yang J, Wang H, Tan D, Chen S, Cheng J, Chen Y, Sun J, Rong F, Yang W, Liu H, Liu Z, Zheng Y, Liang J, Li S, Liu Z, Hou J Abstract Monitoring longitudinal non-advanced fibrosis is a more common scenario in management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB), for which however, current evaluation methods generally lack sufficient performance. We conducted a proof-of-concept study to evaluate the performance of quantitative fibrous collagen parameters (q-FP) in the assessment. Data sets from a prior CHB trial (NCT00962533) with mostly mild-to-moderate fibrosis participants were used for this study. 301 subjects with paired liver biopsies were consecutively included. Of these, 139 subjects were used to establish the test and the rest for internal validation. Fibrosis change between baseline and week 104 of treatment was blindly assessed with q-FP and was compared with Ishak fibrosis staging. There were 70% and 93% subjects with Ishak F0-2 at baseline and week 104, respectively. For the test of the subjects, q-FP and Ishak staging showed no difference in determining the incidence of fibrosis regression (68% vs. 67%; difference=0.7%, p=1.00). Q-FP demonstrated that the regression was independently associated with the antiviral efficacy endpoint (OR 3.0, 95%CI 1.4-6.5, p=0.005), but Ishak failed the detection (OR 0.6, 95%CI 0.3-1.3, p=0.24). Moreover, q-FP directly revealed a higher fibrosis-resistance to antiviral treatment in virus genotypes C versus B and in males versus females. These results were confirmed in the validation subjects. Additionally, a functional model built on the test subjects showed an accuracy of 82% in stratifying fibrosis-reversibility of the validation subjects. In conclusion, q-FP could have improved efficiency and accuracy in the longitudinal assessment of mild-to-moderate CHB fibrosis, indicating a potential alternative to current evaluation methodologies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 29193542 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Improved performance of quantitative collagen parameters versus standard histology in longitudinal assessment of non-advanced liver fibrosis for…