January 2018

Monthly Archive

Serum levels of angiotensin converting enzyme as a biomarker of liver fibrosis.

Posted by on 24 Jan 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Serum levels of angiotensin converting enzyme as a biomarker of liver fibrosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2017 Dec 28;23(48):8439-8442 Authors: Miranda AS, Simões E Silva AC Abstract The renin angiotensin system (RAS) is classically conceived as a circulating hormonal system involved in blood pressure control and hydroelectrolyte balance. The discovery that RAS components are locally expressed in a wide range of organs and tissues, including the liver, pointed to a role for this system in the pathogenesis of several conditions including hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. It has been widely reported that the classical RAS axis composed by the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-angiotensin (Ang) II-Ang type 1 (AT1) receptor mediates pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic, and pro-fibrotic processes. On the other hand, the alternative axis comprising ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas receptor seems to play a protective role by frequently opposing Ang II action. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is one of the leading causes of liver fibrosis, accounting for the death of nearly one million people worldwide. Liver fibrosis is a key factor to determine therapeutic interventions for patients with CHB. However, the establishment of non-invasive and accurate methods to detect reversible stages of liver fibrosis is still a challenge. In an elegant study published in the 36th issue of the World Journal of Gastroenterology, Noguchi et al showed the predictive value of serum ACE levels in detecting not only advanced stages of liver fibrosis but also initial and intermediate fibrotic stages. The serum levels of ACE might represent an accurate, non-invasive, widely available, and easy method to evaluate fibrosis related to CHB. Moreover, therapies involving the inhibition of the classical RAS axis components might be promising in the control of CHB-related liver fibrosis. PMID: 29358853 [PubMed – in process]

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Serum levels of angiotensin converting enzyme as a biomarker of liver fibrosis.

Acute-on-chronic liver failure in chronic hepatitis B: an update.

Posted by on 18 Jan 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Acute-on-chronic liver failure in chronic hepatitis B: an update. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jan 16;:1-10 Authors: Zhao RH, Shi Y, Zhao H, Wu W, Sheng JF Abstract INTRODUCTION: Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a common pattern of end-stage liver disease in clinical practice and occurs frequently in patients with chronic hepatitis B or HBV-related cirrhosis. New progress in recent years leads to a better understanding of this disease. Areas covered: This review updates the current comprehensive knowledge about HBV-ACLF from epidemiological studies, experimental studies, and clinical studies and provide new insights into the definition, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, nature history, pathogenesis, treatment and prognostication of HBV-ACLF. Expert commentary: Patients with chronic hepatitis B or HBV-related cirrhosis are at risk of developing acute-on-chronic liver failure, with multi-organ failure and high short-term mortality. The precipitating events can be intra-hepatic or extra-hepatic and the underlying chronic liver injury can be cirrhotic or non-cirrhotic. Host and viral factors contribute to the susceptibility of developing HBV-ACLF. Systemic inflammation is the driver of HBV-ACLF, which can be attributed to non-sterile and sterile factors. Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for HBV-ACLF. Cell therapy is a promising alternative to LT, but requires validation and still has concern of long-term safety. Other medical therapies, such as nucleoside analogue, artificial liver supporting and glucocorticoid may improve survival in a specific subgroup. New scoring systems improve the accuracy of prognostication in HBV-ACLF, which is critical for early identification of candidates for LT. PMID: 29334786 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Acute-on-chronic liver failure in chronic hepatitis B: an update.

[Effects of Anluohuaxianwan on transforming growth factor-β1 and related signaling pathways in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver…

Posted by on 06 Jan 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles [Effects of Anluohuaxianwan on transforming growth factor-β1 and related signaling pathways in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2017 Apr 20;25(4):257-262 Authors: Lu W, Gao YH, Wang ZZ, Cai YS, Yang YQ, Miao YQ, Pei F, Liu XE, Zhuang H Abstract Objective: The traditional Chinese medicine Anluohuaxianwan (ALHXW) has been used to treat liver fibrosis induced by chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the anti-fibrosis mechanisms of ALHXW remain to be investigated. This study used a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver fibrosis to explore the potential antifibrogenic mechanisms of ALHXW. Methods: Twenty-seven male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control group, model group, and treatment group (n = 9 per group). Rats in the model and treatment group were injected intraperitoneally with 40% CCl(4)(2 ml/kg), and rats in the control group were administered saline twice a week for 6 weeks. Starting at week 4 following model construction, rats in the treatment group received daily gavages with ALHXW solution (concentration 0.15 g/ml) daily, while rats in the control and model groups were given saline for a total of 6 weeks. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured from blood samples collected at the end of weeks 3, 6 and 9. Histopathological examination of liver tissue was performed to evaluate liver fibrosis at week 9. At the same time, the mRNA expression of TGF-β1 and Smads in liver tissues was quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and TGF-β1 protein level in the liver was measured by Western blot. Inter-group comparison was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) when the continuous data were normally distributed and satisfied the homogeneity of variance; otherwise, nonparametric tests were used. Categorical data were compared between groups using nonparametric tests. Results: ALHXW markedly alleviated liver injury in the treatment group after 3 weeks of therapy as indicated by a significantly reduced level of ALT compared with the model group [(162.98 ± 73.14)U/L vs (322.52 ± 131.76)U/L, P = 0.047], and a 39.8% reduction in AST level compared with the model group[ (537.56 ± 306.06)U/L vs (892.98 ± 358.19)U/L, P = 0.053]. Moreover, at the end of the 6-week therapy, histopathological diagnosis showed that liver fibrosis was significantly reduced in the ALHXW-treated group compared with that in the model group (P = 0.002). The relative expression of TGF-β1 mRNA and protein in the liver were significantly lower in ALHXW-treated rats than that in model rats (1.34 ± 0.31 vs 1.78 ± 0.45, P = 0.025; 0.39 ± 0.02 vs 0.57 ± 0.04, P = 0.003). Conclusion: ALHXW treatment can reverse CCl(4)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Its mechanisms of anti-fibrosis may occur through the inhibition of TGF-β1 synthesis and TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway, which in turn suppress the activation of hepatic stellate cells and thereby reverses fibrosis. PMID: 28494543 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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[Effects of Anluohuaxianwan on transforming growth factor-β1 and related signaling pathways in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver…