July 2018

Monthly Archive

Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed)

Posted by on 13 Jul 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine, Others

Related Articles Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) Book. 2006 Authors: Abstract Published experience with tenofovir during breastfeeding in HIV-positive mothers and HIV-negative mothers treated for HIV prophylaxis or hepatitis B infection indicates that the exposure of the infant to the drug is trivial. A few infants have been breastfed during maternal tenofovir therapy and no adverse effects have been seen up to 2 years of age. Expert reviews of available data concluded that there is currently no justification for contraindicating the use of tenofovir for hepatitis B during breastfeeding.[1][2] Professional organization guidelines generally allow breastfeeding during tenofovir therapy, although one guideline cautions against it because of a lack of long-term safety data.[3][4][5] The lack of long-term safety data with long-term, low-level infant exposure should be discussed with the mother.[3] No differences exist in infection rates between breastfed and formula-fed infants born to hepatitis B-infected women, as long as the infant receives hepatitis B immune globulin and hepatitis B vaccine at birth. Mothers with hepatitis B are encouraged to breastfeed their infants after their infants receive these preventative measures.[6][7] Maternal use of prophylactic vaginal tenofovir (investigational in the U.S.) does not appear to present a great risk to the breastfed infant.[8] In the United States and other developed countries, HIV-infected mothers should generally not breastfeed their infants. In countries in which no acceptable, feasible, sustainable and safe replacement feeding is available, World Health Organization guidelines recommend that all women with an HIV infection who are pregnant or breastfeeding should be maintained on antiretroviral therapy for at least the duration of risk for mother-to-child transmission. Mothers should exclusively breastfeed their infants for the first 6 months of life; breastfeeding with complementary feeding should continue through at least 12 months of life up to 24 months of life.[9] The first choice regimen for nursing mothers is tenofovir, efavirenz and either lamivudine or emtricitabine. If these drugs are unavailable, alternative regimens include: 1) zidovudine, lamivudine and efavirenz; 2) zidovudine, lamivudine and nevirapine; or 3) tenofovir, nevirapine and either lamivudine or emtricitabine. Exclusively breastfed infants should also receive 6 weeks of prophylaxis with nevirapine.[10][11] Use of tenofovir as an agent for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in HIV-uninfected nursing mothers appears to pose little risk to their breastfed infants and might prevent vertical HIV transmission by preventing maternal infection.[12] Treatment of mothers of HIV+ mothers with efavirenz as part of Option B+ therapy does not appear to affect growth of their HIV-negative breastfed infants. PMID: 30000609

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Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed)

Cerebral Malaria in a Patient with HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C.

Posted by on 06 Jul 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Cerebral Malaria in a Patient with HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. Cureus. 2018 May 02;10(5):e2569 Authors: Uddin SMM, Haq A, Haq Z, Yaqoob U, Shah H, Kazmi SFA Abstract Cerebral malaria is one of the most common causes of non-traumatic encephalopathy. A 25-year-old man who is a known intravenous and oral drug abuser presented to our clinic with fever and sore throat for two days prior and an altered level of consciousness for one day. On examination, the patient was icteric, and his Glasgow coma scale score on arrival was 10/15; he had dilated pupils reactive to light and a positive corneal reflex. All cranial nerves were intact; however, signs of meningeal irritation were positive. Motor examination showed an increased tone and rigidity in all limbs, patellar reflex was 3+, plantars were down-going, and clonus was negative. A fundoscopic examination was unremarkable. Additional investigations revealed he was positive for Plasmodium falciparum, HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. In addition, a test of his cerebrospinal fluid revealed evidence of cerebral malaria. We initiated artemether 120 mg, intravenous ceftriaxone 2 g, and 5% dextrose saline for the intermittent hypoglycemia. The patient’s condition eventually improved drastically. This case outlines the possible exacerbating effect of HIV on malaria, and it calls for HIV screening and staging alongside suspected malaria. This case also underlines the need for further evaluation of a potential protective role of hepatitis B and C to find an alternative therapeutic cure for malaria. PMID: 29974024 [PubMed]

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Cerebral Malaria in a Patient with HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C.