Related Articles Acute-on-chronic liver failure in chronic hepatitis B: an update. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jan 16;:1-10 Authors: Zhao RH, Shi Y, Zhao H, Wu W, Sheng JF Abstract INTRODUCTION: Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a common pattern of end-stage liver disease in clinical practice and occurs frequently in patients with chronic hepatitis B or HBV-related cirrhosis. New progress in recent years leads to a better understanding of this disease. Areas covered: This review updates the current comprehensive knowledge about HBV-ACLF from epidemiological studies, experimental studies, and clinical studies and provide new insights into the definition, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, nature history, pathogenesis, treatment and prognostication of HBV-ACLF. Expert commentary: Patients with chronic hepatitis B or HBV-related cirrhosis are at risk of developing acute-on-chronic liver failure, with multi-organ failure and high short-term mortality. The precipitating events can be intra-hepatic or extra-hepatic and the underlying chronic liver injury can be cirrhotic or non-cirrhotic. Host and viral factors contribute to the susceptibility of developing HBV-ACLF. Systemic inflammation is the driver of HBV-ACLF, which can be attributed to non-sterile and sterile factors. Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for HBV-ACLF. Cell therapy is a promising alternative to LT, but requires validation and still has concern of long-term safety. Other medical therapies, such as nucleoside analogue, artificial liver supporting and glucocorticoid may improve survival in a specific subgroup. New scoring systems improve the accuracy of prognostication in HBV-ACLF, which is critical for early identification of candidates for LT. PMID: 29334786 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Acute-on-chronic liver failure in chronic hepatitis B: an update.