Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

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Enhanced antiviral and antifibrotic effects of short hairpin RNAs targeting HBV and TGF-β in HBV-persistent mice.

Posted by on 22 Jun 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Enhanced antiviral and antifibrotic effects of short hairpin RNAs targeting HBV and TGF-β in HBV-persistent mice. Sci Rep. 2017 Jun 20;7(1):3860 Authors: Ye L, Kan F, Yan T, Cao J, Zhang L, Wu Z, Li W Abstract The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic liver infection, which may lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current treatments including interferons and nucleotide analogs, have limited therapeutic effects, underscoring the need to identify effective therapeutic options to inhibit HBV replication and prevent complications. Previous animal models mimicking chronic HBV infection do not faithfully reflect disease progression in humans. Here, we used our established HBV-persistent mouse line with liver fibrosis to evaluate the efficacy of novel therapies. The combination of two short hairpin RNAs (dual-shRNA) against different coding regions of HBV delivered by a self-complementary AAV vector showed better antiviral effects than single shRNA both in vitro and in HBV-persistent mice. The dual-shRNA also exhibited stronger antifibrotic activity in vivo. Vector carrying shRNA against TGF-β, though did not inhibit HBV replication alone, enhanced the antiviral and antifibrotic activities of single and dual HBV shRNAs. Co-administration of TGF-β shRNA and HBV dual-shRNA decreased HBV DNA, HBV RNA, HBsAg, HBeAg, and liver fibrosis markers in serum and tissues, and improved liver morphology more effectively than single treatments. Our results suggest that the combination of shRNAs against HBV and TGF-β could be developed into a viable treatment for human HBV infection. PMID: 28634402 [PubMed – in process]

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Enhanced antiviral and antifibrotic effects of short hairpin RNAs targeting HBV and TGF-β in HBV-persistent mice.

Alternative treatment in Hepatitis B by using polyherbal formulation.

Posted by on 13 Jun 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Alternative treatment in Hepatitis B by using polyherbal formulation. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2017 Jan;30(1):49-54 Authors: Iqbal O, Nazar H, Afzal S, Usmanghani K Abstract The hepatitis B is most prevalent diseases (along with morbidities) in Asian countries. This research study has been conducted to provide an alternative treatment which is safe, effective and cost-effective to comprehend relations of disease, symptoms, patients response and the clinical response via better management of hepatitis B. The goal of this research is to evaluate efficacy and safety of herbal medicine as compared to allopathic medicine in patients suffering from hepatitis B. This was a single blind, randomized controlled clinical trial conducted at Shifa-ul-Mulk Memorial Hospital Hamdard University, Karachi and Dar ul Shifa Unani Dawakhana Karachi, Pakistan. The patients of both genders ranging from 25 to 50 years with symptoms and diagnosed for hepatitis B that fulfilled the criteria for membership, and consented for participation were registered. Ethical committee clearance and permission was obtained from the concerned committee at Faculty of Eastern Medicine, Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan. No significant difference was identified after treatment and it was found that the efficacy of Alpha (Control drug) is same as Safoof akseer e jigar (Test drug). The data offered support to the null hypothesis and therefore research hypothesis was rejected. According to the statistical analysis by chi square, hepatitis B was recorded as negative in 26 patients (57.77%) out of 45 patients by the use of Interferon Alpha (control therapy) and in 27 patients (64.28%) out of 42 patients by the use of Safoof akseer e jigar (test drug). Comparison of the data recorded of the patients was determined as both drugs showed significant improvement and p value>0.05. The efficacy response is equal in both drugs while test drug showed more safety response. It is concluded that Safoof akseer e jigar possesses as effective a therapeutic value in treating hepatitis B as allopathic medicine. PMID: 28603112 [PubMed – in process]

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Alternative treatment in Hepatitis B by using polyherbal formulation.

Occupational hazards of traditional healers: repeated unprotected blood exposures risk infectious disease transmission.

Posted by on 03 Jun 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Occupational hazards of traditional healers: repeated unprotected blood exposures risk infectious disease transmission. Trop Med Int Health. 2016 Nov;21(11):1476-1480 Authors: Audet CM, Salato J, Blevins M, Silva W, González-Calvo L, Vermund SH, Gaspar F Abstract OBJECTIVE: Healers provide support for acute and chronic illnesses in rural Mozambique, such as socially acceptable traditional ‘vaccinations’ (subcutaneous cuts in the skin to rub herbs directly into the bloody lesion). We aimed to document the frequency of blood exposure by traditional practitioners in Mozambique. METHODS: We conducted surveys with a simple random sample of 236 traditional healers in Zambézia province. Chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to compare ‘injection’ behaviours across districts. RESULTS: Healers treated a median of eight patients in the past month (IQR: 4-15). About 75% conducted ‘injections’. These healers ‘injected’ a median of four patients (IQR: 1-8), used a new razor a median of three times (IQR: 1-8), and almost never used gloves. Lifetime blood exposures among those who provided ‘injections’ during treatments were estimated to be 1758 over a healer’s career. CONCLUSION: The majority of healers are exposed repeatedly to patient blood. Given the high prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B and C virus, and other blood-borne agents, specific healer practices are an occupational hazard and reuse of razors is risky for their clients. PMID: 27580349 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Occupational hazards of traditional healers: repeated unprotected blood exposures risk infectious disease transmission.

Key symptoms selection for two major syndromes diagnosis of Chinese medicine in chronic hepatitis B.

Posted by on 25 Apr 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Key symptoms selection for two major syndromes diagnosis of Chinese medicine in chronic hepatitis B. Chin J Integr Med. 2017 Apr;23(4):253-260 Authors: Zhao Y, Kang H, Peng JH, Xu L, Cao ZW, Hu YY Abstract OBJECTIVE: To identify key symptoms of two major syndromes in chronic hepatitis B (CHB), which can be the clinical evidence for Chinese medicine (CM) doctors to make decisions. METHODS: Standardization scales on diagnosis for CHB in CM were designed including physical symptoms, tongue and pulse appearance. The total of 695 CHB cases with dampness-heat (DH) syndrome or Pi (Spleen) deficiency (SD) syndrome were collected for feature selection and modeling, another 275 CHB patients were collected in different locations for validation. Key symptoms were selected based on modified information gain (IG), and 5 classifiers were applied to assist with models training and validation. Classification accuracy and area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were evaluated. RESULTS: (1) Thirteen DH syndrome key symptoms and 13 SD syndrome key symptoms were selected from original 125 symptoms; (2) The key symptoms could achieve similar or better diagnostic accuracy than the original total symptoms; (3) In the validation phase, the key symptoms could identify syndromes effectively, especially in DH syndrome, which average prediction accuracy on 5 classifiers could achieve 0.864 with the average AUC 0.772. CONCLUSION: The selected key symptoms could be simple DH and SD syndromes diagnostic elements applied in clinical directly. (Registration N0.: ChiCTR-DCC-10000759). PMID: 27225292 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Key symptoms selection for two major syndromes diagnosis of Chinese medicine in chronic hepatitis B.

Prevention and management of hepatitis B virus reactivation in patients with hematological malignancies treated with anticancer therapy.

Posted by on 18 Apr 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Prevention and management of hepatitis B virus reactivation in patients with hematological malignancies treated with anticancer therapy. World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Jul 28;22(28):6484-500 Authors: Law MF, Ho R, Cheung CK, Tam LH, Ma K, So KC, Ip B, So J, Lai J, Ng J, Tam TH Abstract Hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation can be severe and potentially fatal, but is preventable. HBV reactivation is most commonly reported in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy, especially rituximab-containing therapy for hematological malignancies and those receiving stem cell transplantation. All patients with hematological malignancies receiving anticancer therapy should be screened for active or resolved HBV infection by blood tests for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Patients found to be positive for HBsAg should be given prophylactic antiviral therapy to prevent HBV reactivation. For patients with resolved HBV infection, no standard strategy has yet been established to prevent HBV reactivation. There are usually two options. One is pre-emptive therapy guided by serial HBV DNA monitoring, whereby antiviral therapy is given as soon as HBV DNA becomes detectable. However, there is little evidence regarding the optimal interval and period of monitoring. An alternative approach is prophylactic antiviral therapy, especially for patients receiving high-risk therapy such as rituximab, newer generation of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, obinutuzumab or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This strategy may effectively prevent HBV reactivation and avoid the inconvenience of repeated HBV DNA monitoring. Entecavir or tenofovir are preferred over lamivudine as prophylactic therapy. Although there is no well-defined guideline on the optimal duration of prophylactic therapy, there is growing evidence to recommend continuing prophylactic antiviral therapy for at least 12 mo after cessation of chemotherapy, and even longer for those who receive rituximab or who had high serum HBV DNA levels before the start of immunosuppressive therapy. Many novel agents have recently become available for the treatment of hematological malignancies, and these agents may be associated with HBV reactivation. Although there is currently limited evidence to guide the optimal preventive measures, we recommend antiviral prophylaxis in HBsAg-positive patients receiving novel treatments, especially the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors, which are B-cell receptor signaling modulators and reduce proliferation of malignant B-cells. Further studies are needed to clarify the risk of HBV reactivation with these agents and the best prophylactic strategy in the era of targeted therapy for hematological malignancies. PMID: 27605883 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Prevention and management of hepatitis B virus reactivation in patients with hematological malignancies treated with anticancer therapy.

Long-term Results of Living Donors in Simultaneous Kidney and Liver Transplantations.

Posted by on 28 Mar 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Long-term Results of Living Donors in Simultaneous Kidney and Liver Transplantations. Transplant Proc. 2017 Apr;49(3):403-406 Authors: Unek T, Egeli T, Özbilgin M, Çelik A, Atilla K, Ağalar C, Arslan NÇ, Karademir S, Bora S, Gülay H, Derici ZS, Astarcıoğlu I Abstract INTRODUCTION: Because of the shortage of organs available for transplantation, living related sequential transplantation with the use of liver and a kidney from the same donor has emerged as a reasonable therapeutic alternative. However, there is insufficient literature about the complications that living donors experience after simultaneous kidney and liver transplantations. METHODS: From December 2001 to October 2009, 5 living donors provided simultaneous donation of livers and kidneys and 1 living donor donated first her kidney and then her liver. Demographic data of the donors and information concerning the surgery and postoperative observation were collected prospectively. RESULTS: All of the donors were female. The median age was 27.5 (range, 19-36) years. Indications requiring the simultaneous transplantation of livers and kidneys were primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) in 5 potential recipients and cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis B infection and idiopathic chronic renal insufficiency in 1 potential recipient. Four recipients underwent right hepatectomy (segments 5-8) and right nephrectomy; 1 recipient underwent left hepatectomy (segments 2-4) and right nephrectomy; and 1 recipient underwent left lobectomy (segments 2-3) and right nephrectomy. There were no complications except in 1 donor (postoperative ileus). No donor developed hypertension or microalbuminuria. CONCLUSIONS: With the right indications, appropriate preoperative evaluation, meticulous surgical technique, proper postoperative care, and long-term close monitoring to minimize morbidity and mortality risks, liver and kidney donation from the same donor can be considered for simultaneous kidney and liver transplantation. PMID: 28340800 [PubMed – in process]

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Long-term Results of Living Donors in Simultaneous Kidney and Liver Transplantations.

Differential regulation of hepatitis B virus core protein expression and genome replication by a small upstream open reading frame and naturally…

Posted by on 07 Mar 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Differential regulation of hepatitis B virus core protein expression and genome replication by a small upstream open reading frame and naturally occurring mutations in the precore region. Virology. 2017 Mar 02;505:155-161 Authors: Zong L, Qin Y, Jia H, Ye L, Wang Y, Zhang J, Wands JR, Tong S, Li J Abstract Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcribes two subsets of 3.5-kb RNAs: precore RNA for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) expression, and pregenomic RNA for core and P protein translation as well as genome replication. HBeAg expression could be prevented by mutations in the precore region, while an upstream open reading frame (uORF) has been proposed as a negative regulator of core protein translation. We employed replication competent HBV DNA constructs and transient transfection experiments in Huh7 cells to verify the uORF effect and to explore the alternative function of precore RNA. Optimized Kozak sequence for the uORF or extra ATG codons as present in some HBV genotypes reduced core protein expression. G1896A nonsense mutation promoted more efficient core protein expression than mutated precore ATG, while a +1 frameshift mutation was ineffective. In conclusion, various HBeAg-negative precore mutations and mutations affecting uORF differentially regulate core protein expression and genome replication. PMID: 28260621 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Differential regulation of hepatitis B virus core protein expression and genome replication by a small upstream open reading frame and naturally…

Expression of hepatitis B virus surface antigens induces defective gonad phenotypes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Posted by on 28 Feb 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Expression of hepatitis B virus surface antigens induces defective gonad phenotypes in Caenorhabditis elegans. World J Virol. 2017 Feb 12;6(1):17-25 Authors: Chen YY, Lee LW, Hong WN, Lo SJ Abstract AIM: To test whether a simple animal, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), can be used as an alternative model to study the interaction between hepatitis B virus antigens (HBsAg) and host factors. METHODS: Three plasmids that were able to express the large, middle and small forms of HBsAgs (LHBsAg, MHBsAg, and SHBsAg, respectively) driven by a ubiquitous promoter (fib-1) and three that were able to express SHBsAg driven by different tissue-specific promoters were constructed and microinjected into worms. The brood size, egg-laying rate, and gonad development of transgenic worms were analyzed using microscopy. Levels of mRNA related to endoplasmic reticulum stress, enpl-1, hsp-4, pdi-3 and xbp-1, were determined using reverse transcription polymerase reaction (RT-PCRs) in three lines of transgenic worms and dithiothreitol (DTT)-treated wild-type worms. RESULTS: Severe defects in egg-laying, decreases in brood size, and gonad retardation were observed in transgenic worms expressing SHBsAg whereas moderate defects were observed in transgenic worms expressing LHBsAg and MHBsAg. RT-PCR analysis revealed that enpl-1, hsp-4 and pdi-3 transcripts were significantly elevated in worms expressing LHBsAg and MHBsAg and in wild-type worms pretreated with DTT. By contrast, only pdi-3 was increased in worms expressing SHBsAg. To further determine which tissue expressing SHBsAg could induce gonad retardation, we substituted the fib-1 promoter with three tissue-specific promoters (myo-2 for the pharynx, est-1 for the intestines and mec-7 for the neurons) and generated corresponding transgenic animals. Moderate defective phenotypes were observed in worms expressing SHBsAg in the pharynx and intestines but not in worms expressing SHBsAg in the neurons, suggesting that the secreted SHBsAg may trigger a cross-talk signal between the digestive track and the gonad resulting in defective phenotypes. CONCLUSION: Ectopic expression of three forms of HBsAg that causes recognizable phenotypes in transgenic worms suggests that C. elegans can be used as an alternative model for studying virus-host interactions because the resulting phenotype is easily detected through microscopy. PMID: 28239568 [PubMed – in process]

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Expression of hepatitis B virus surface antigens induces defective gonad phenotypes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

B-cell repertoire dynamics after sequential hepatitis B vaccination and evidence for cross-reactive B-cell activation.

Posted by on 26 Feb 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles B-cell repertoire dynamics after sequential hepatitis B vaccination and evidence for cross-reactive B-cell activation. Genome Med. 2016 06 16;8(1):68 Authors: Galson JD, Trück J, Clutterbuck EA, Fowler A, Cerundolo V, Pollard AJ, Lunter G, Kelly DF Abstract BACKGROUND: A diverse B-cell repertoire is essential for recognition and response to infectious and vaccine antigens. High-throughput sequencing of B-cell receptor (BCR) genes can now be used to study the B-cell repertoire at great depth and may shed more light on B-cell responses than conventional immunological methods. Here, we use high-throughput BCR sequencing to provide novel insight into B-cell dynamics following a primary course of hepatitis B vaccination. METHODS: Nine vaccine-naïve participants were administered three doses of hepatitis B vaccine (months 0, 1, and 2 or 7). High-throughput Illumina sequencing of the total BCR repertoire was combined with targeted sequencing of sorted vaccine antigen-enriched B cells to analyze the longitudinal response of both the total and vaccine-specific repertoire after each vaccine. ELISpot was used to determine vaccine-specific cell numbers following each vaccine. RESULTS: Deconvoluting the vaccine-specific from total BCR repertoire showed that vaccine-specific sequence clusters comprised <0.1 % of total sequence clusters, and had certain stereotypic features. The vaccine-specific BCR sequence clusters were expanded after each of the three vaccine doses, despite no vaccine-specific B cells being detected by ELISpot after the first vaccine dose. These vaccine-specific BCR clusters detected after the first vaccine dose had distinct properties compared to those detected after subsequent doses; they were more mutated, present at low frequency even prior to vaccination, and appeared to be derived from more mature B cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the high-sensitivity of our vaccine-specific BCR analysis approach and suggest an alternative view of the B-cell response to novel antigens. In the response to the first vaccine dose, many vaccine-specific BCR clusters appeared to largely derive from previously activated cross-reactive B cells that have low affinity for the vaccine antigen, and subsequent doses were required to yield higher affinity B cells. PMID: 27312086 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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B-cell repertoire dynamics after sequential hepatitis B vaccination and evidence for cross-reactive B-cell activation.

An end-point method based on graphene oxide for RNase H analysis and inhibitors screening.

Posted by on 24 Feb 2017 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles An end-point method based on graphene oxide for RNase H analysis and inhibitors screening. Biosens Bioelectron. 2017 Apr 15;90:103-109 Authors: Zhao C, Fan J, Peng L, Zhao L, Tong C, Wang W, Liu B Abstract As a highly conserved damage repair protein, RNase H can hydrolysis DNA-RNA heteroduplex endonucleolytically and cleave RNA-DNA junctions as well. In this study, we have developed an accurate and sensitive RNase H assay based on fluorophore-labeled chimeric substrate hydrolysis and the differential affinity of graphene oxide on RNA strand with different length. This end-point measurement method can detect RNase H in a range of 0.01 to 1 units /mL with a detection limit of 5.0×10(-3) units/ mL under optimal conditions. We demonstrate the utility of the assay by screening antibiotics, resulting in the identification of gentamycin, streptomycin and kanamycin as inhibitors with IC50 of 60±5µM, 70±8µM and 300±20µM, respectively. Furthermore, the assay was reliably used to detect RNase H in complicated biosamples and found that RNase H activity in tumor cells was inhibited by gentamycin and streptomycin sulfate in a concentration-dependent manner. The average level of RNase H in serums of HBV infection group was similar to that of control group. In summary, the assay provides an alternative tool for biochemical analysis for this enzyme and indicates the feasibility of high throughput screening inhibitors of RNase H in vitro and in vivo. PMID: 27886596 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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An end-point method based on graphene oxide for RNase H analysis and inhibitors screening.

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