Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

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Systems Pharmacology-based strategy to screen new adjuvant for hepatitis B vaccine from Traditional Chinese Medicine Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

Posted by on 12 Dec 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Systems Pharmacology-based strategy to screen new adjuvant for hepatitis B vaccine from Traditional Chinese Medicine Ophiocordyceps sinensis. Sci Rep. 2017 03 20;7:44788 Authors: Wang J, Liu R, Liu B, Yang Y, Xie J, Zhu N Abstract Adjuvants are common component for many vaccines but there are still few licensed for human use due to low efficiency or side effects. The present work adopted Systems Pharmacology analysis as a new strategy to screen adjuvants from traditional Chinese medicine. Ophiocordyceps sinensis has been used for many years in China and other Asian countries with many biological properties, but the pharmacological mechanism has not been fully elucidated. First in this study, 190 putative targets for 17 active compounds in Ophiocordyceps sinensis were retrieved and a systems pharmacology-based approach was applied to provide new insights into the pharmacological actions of the drug. Pathway enrichment analysis found that the targets participated in several immunological processes. Based on this, we selected cordycepin as a target compound to serve as an adjuvant of the hepatitis B vaccine because the existing vaccine often fails to induce an effective immune response in many subjects. Animal and cellular experiments finally validated that the new vaccine simultaneously improves the humoral and cellular immunity of BALB/c mice without side effects. All this results demonstrate that cordycepin could work as adjuvant to hepatitis b vaccine and systems-pharmacology analysis could be used as a new method to select adjuvants. PMID: 28317886 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Systems Pharmacology-based strategy to screen new adjuvant for hepatitis B vaccine from Traditional Chinese Medicine Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

Anti-hepatitis B virus effects of the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia capillaris and its active enynes.

Posted by on 14 Nov 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Anti-hepatitis B virus effects of the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia capillaris and its active enynes. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018 Oct 05;224:283-289 Authors: Geng CA, Yang TH, Huang XY, Yang J, Ma YB, Li TZ, Zhang XM, Chen JJ Abstract ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Artemisia capillaris (Yin-Chen) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for treating acute and chronic hepatitis in China. Enynes are one type of characteristic constituents in this herb, while their anti-hepatitis B virus (anti-HBV) properties have not been systemically investigated. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study is to reveal the active part of A. capillaris, and systemically investigate the enynes and their anti-HBV activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The total extract and each fraction of A. capillaris were assayed for the anti-HBV activity to reveal the active part. Bioassay-guided fractionation using various chromatographic techniques yielded the enynes, whose structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and ECD calculations. The anti-HBV properties inhibiting HBsAg and HBeAg secretions and HBV DNA replication were evaluated on HepG 2.2.15 cell line in vitro. RESULTS: ACT-2 and ACT-3 was revealed to be the respective active and toxic part of A. capillaris. Twelve enynes (1-12) involving four new ones (1-4) and two unusual enyne analogs (13-14) were isolated from the active part (ACT-2). All the isolates were assayed for their anti-HBV activity, and the preliminary structure-activity relationships were summarized based on the structural features. In particular, compound 4 could significantly inhibit the secretions of HBsAg and HBeAg, and HBV DNA replication with IC50 values of 197.2 (SI > 5.1), 48.7 (SI > 20.5) and 9.8 (SI > 102) μM. CONCLUSIONS: Enynes are responsible for the anti-HBV effects of A. capillaris. Hydroxyl and glycosyl groups are preferable for maintaining activity. This is the first time to systematically investigate the anti-HBV activity of enynes in A. capillaris, which provides valuable information for understanding the ethnopharmacological application of Yin-Chen. PMID: 29890315 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Anti-hepatitis B virus effects of the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia capillaris and its active enynes.

Altered oral microbiota in chronic hepatitis B patients with different tongue coatings.

Posted by on 10 Nov 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Altered oral microbiota in chronic hepatitis B patients with different tongue coatings. World J Gastroenterol. 2018 Aug 14;24(30):3448-3461 Authors: Zhao Y, Mao YF, Tang YS, Ni MZ, Liu QH, Wang Y, Feng Q, Peng JH, Hu YY Abstract AIM: To elucidate tongue coating microbiota and metabolic differences in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with yellow or white tongue coatings. METHODS: Tongue coating samples were collected from 53 CHB patients (28 CHB yellow tongue coating patients and 25 CHB white tongue coating patients) and 22 healthy controls. Microbial DNA was extracted from the tongue samples, and the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene V3 region was amplified from all samples and sequenced with the Ion Torrent PGM™ sequencing platform according to the standard protocols. The metabolites in the tongue coatings were evaluated using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) platform. Statistical analyses were then performed. RESULTS: The relative compositions of the tongue coating microbiotas and metabolites in the CHB patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls, but the tongue coating microbiota abundances and diversity levels were not significantly different. Compared with the CHB white tongue coating patients, the CHB yellow tongue coating patients had higher hepatitis B viral DNA (HBV-DNA) titers (median 21210 vs 500, respectively, P = 0.03) and a significantly lower level of Bacteroidetes (20.14% vs 27.93%, respectively, P = 0.013) and higher level of Proteobacteria (25.99% vs 18.17%, respectively, P = 0.045) in the microbial compositions at the phylum level. The inferred metagenomic pathways enriched in the CHB yellow tongue coating patients were mainly those involved in amino acid metabolism, which was consistent with the metabolic disorder. The abundances of bacteria from Bacteroidales at the order level were higher in the CHB white tongue coating patients (19.2% vs 27.22%, respectively, P = 0.011), whereas Neisseriales were enriched in the yellow tongue coating patients (21.85% vs 13.83%, respectively, P = 0.029). At the family level, the abundance of Neisseriaceae in the yellow tongue patients was positively correlated with the HBV-DNA level but negatively correlated with the S-adenosyl-L-methionine level. CONCLUSION: This research illustrates specific clinical features and bacterial structures in CHB patients with different tongue coatings, which facilitates understanding of the traditional tongue diagnosis. PMID: 30122883 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Altered oral microbiota in chronic hepatitis B patients with different tongue coatings.

[Blood-borne occupational exposure and protection in medical staff of a traditional Chinese medicine hospital].

Posted by on 01 Nov 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles [Blood-borne occupational exposure and protection in medical staff of a traditional Chinese medicine hospital]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2017 Mar 20;35(3):205-208 Authors: Zhang ZG, Wei QX, Yang ZP, Wei QM, Wang XM, Wang XL Abstract Objective: To investigate blood-borne occupational exposure and related protection in the medical staff of a traditional Chinese medicine hospital, and to provide a reference for reducing the risk of blood-borne occupational exposure. Methods: Forty-eight medical workers with blood-borne occupational exposure in 2015 were selected to analyze the incidence of blood-borne occupational exposure, influencing factors, operations that caused blood-borne occupational exposure, pathogens, and occupational protection. Results: The incidence rate of blood-borne occupational exposure in the medical staff of the traditional Chinese medicine hospital in 2015 was 3.30% (48/1 455) , and the frequency was 0.04 time/person/year. The workers with blood-borne occupational exposure were mostly nurses, females, workers aged <30 years, workers with <5 working years, and workers with a junior professional title. There was a significant difference in the incidence rate of blood-borne occupational exposure between workers with different ages and working years. The main way of blood-borne occupational exposure was sharp injury (96.08%) . The main operations that caused blood-borne occupational exposure were covering or separating the syringe needle after injection and disposing used sharp instruments. The main exposure site was the hand (96.08%) , with the thumb and index finger for the left hand and the middle finger and index finger for the right hand; there was no significant difference in the exposure site distribution between the two hands (P<0.05) . The main pathogen that caused blood-borne occupational exposure was hepatitis B virus (68.96%) . The rate of correct local treatment for blood-borne occupational exposure was 88.24%. The rate of prophylactic medication was 74.51%, and hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) plus hepatitis B vaccine was the main way, followed by HBIG. In all workers with blood-borne occupational exposure, 62.74% did not wear gloves. Conclusion: The medical workers with few working years have a high risk of blood-borne occupational exposure, so the training on protection against blood-borne occupational exposure should be strengthened to reduce the risk of blood-borne occupational exposure and infection. PMID: 28511308 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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[Blood-borne occupational exposure and protection in medical staff of a traditional Chinese medicine hospital].

Pharmacologic Treatment of Opioid Use Disorder: a Review of Pharmacotherapy, Adjuncts, and Toxicity.

Posted by on 01 Nov 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Pharmacologic Treatment of Opioid Use Disorder: a Review of Pharmacotherapy, Adjuncts, and Toxicity. J Med Toxicol. 2018 Oct 30;: Authors: Toce MS, Chai PR, Burns MM, Boyer EW Abstract Opioid use disorder continues to be a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the USA and the world. Pharmacologic treatment with methadone and buprenorphine has been shown to be effective at retaining people in treatment programs, decreasing illicit opioid use, decreasing rates of hepatitis B, and reducing all cause and overdose mortality. Unfortunately, barriers exist in accessing these lifesaving medications: users wishing to start buprenorphine therapy require a waivered provider to prescribe the medication, while some states have no methadone clinics. As such, users looking to wean themselves from opioids or treat their opioid dependence will turn to alternative agents. These agents include using prescription medications, like clonidine or gabapentin, off-label, or over the counter drugs, like loperamide, in supratherapeutic doses. This review provides information on the pharmacology and the toxic effects of pharmacologic agents that are used to treat opioid use disorder. The xenobiotics reviewed in depth include buprenorphine, clonidine, kratom, loperamide, and methadone, with additional information provided on lofexidine, akuamma seeds, kava, and gabapentin. PMID: 30377951 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Pharmacologic Treatment of Opioid Use Disorder: a Review of Pharmacotherapy, Adjuncts, and Toxicity.

Epigenetic differences of chronic hepatitis B in different TCM syndromes: Protocol for a case-control, non-interventional, observational clinical…

Posted by on 17 Oct 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Epigenetic differences of chronic hepatitis B in different TCM syndromes: Protocol for a case-control, non-interventional, observational clinical study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Sep;97(39):e12452 Authors: Ma L, Zheng X, Yang Y, Wang J, Xu Y, Wang B Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chronic hepatitis B is a serious disease causing serious harm to the human health. Chinese medicine has its unique advantages in the clinical prevention and treatment, while the syndrome of Chinese medicine lacks the understanding at the micro level. There are some theoretical commonalities between the epigenetics and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes. The biological basis of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) syndrome differentiation from the perspective of epigenetics is of great significance to diagnose and prevent the diseases. METHODS: This protocol is a case-control, noninterventional, observational clinical study. Patients with CHB for spleen-stomach damp heat and liver depression and spleen deficiency, with 12 each and 11 healthy volunteers were recruited. Peripheral venous blood was collected from the participants. DNA methylated transferase, genomic DNA methylated spectrum, methylated DNA binding protein MeCP2, chronic infection of hepatitis B virus with methylated related proteins, and miRNA target genes were analyzed. OBJECTIVES: From the perspective of DNA methylation epigenetics, “DNA methylation-miRNA-Target gene” is the main line, which further reveals the essence of TCM syndrome. To improve the level of TCM clinical syndrome differentiation and the clinical efficacy of TCM, especially in the study of TCM syndromes of CHB, discovering its underlying biological signature is necessary. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials Registration: ChiCTR1800017365, registered 26 July 2018. PMID: 30278525 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Epigenetic differences of chronic hepatitis B in different TCM syndromes: Protocol for a case-control, non-interventional, observational clinical…

The prevalence and characteristics of HIV/AIDS patients presenting at a chiropractic outpatient clinic in Toronto, Ontario. A retrospective,…

Posted by on 12 Oct 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles The prevalence and characteristics of HIV/AIDS patients presenting at a chiropractic outpatient clinic in Toronto, Ontario. A retrospective, observational study. J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2018 Aug;62(2):77-84 Authors: Injeyan HS, Connell G, Foster K, Kopansky-Giles D, Sovak G, Tibbles T Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence and presenting complaints of HIV/AIDS patients attending a chiropractic outpatient teaching clinic in downtown Toronto, and explore their self-reported comorbidities, medications used, and consumption of other complementary health care. Methods: A random sample was drawn from the entire clinic file collection spanning the years 2007 to 2013. Files were anonymized and coded to ensure confidentiality. Results: A total of 264 files were radomly pulled from approxinately 3750 clinic files. The prevalence of HIV positive patients was 5.7% (15/264), predominantly males, with 3 patients having developed AIDS. Co-infection with Hepatitis B and/or C was identified in 5/15 patients. The most common presenting complaint was neck pain (80%), followed by low back pain (47%) compared to 20% and 43% respectively for the general cohort. Eleven of 15 patients were on antiretroviral treatment (ART); The frequency of comorbidities was 8/15 (53%) however, none were identified as being dominant. In addition to chiropractic, 7/15 patients reported receiving other complementary therapies. Conclusions: A relatively small proportion of HIV/ AIDS patients were found to be receiving treatments in this downtown chiropractic clinic situated within a community health clinic setting. The principal presenting complaint was neck pain. PMID: 30305763 [PubMed]

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The prevalence and characteristics of HIV/AIDS patients presenting at a chiropractic outpatient clinic in Toronto, Ontario. A retrospective,…

A New ELISA to Overcome the Pitfalls in Quantification of Recombinant Human Monoclonal Anti-HBs, GC1102, by Commercial Immunoassays.

Posted by on 03 Oct 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles A New ELISA to Overcome the Pitfalls in Quantification of Recombinant Human Monoclonal Anti-HBs, GC1102, by Commercial Immunoassays. Biol Proced Online. 2018;20:18 Authors: Shin YW, Cho DH, Song GW, Kim SH Abstract Several methods for the quantification of human anti-HBs, an antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), have been developed based on enzyme reaction, chemiluminescence, fluorescence, and radioactivity for application to human serum or plasma. Commercial anti-HBs immunoassay kits use a sandwich method in which a bridge is formed by the anti-HBs between a HBsAg immobilized solid matrix and the labeled HBsAg. However, this direct sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is insufficient to accurately evaluate the activity of the human monoclonal anti-HBs, GC1102. As an alternative, we developed an indirect anti-HBs ELISA (anti-HBs qELISA_v.1) that improved detection of anti-HBs. In this current study, we further optimized this indirect method to minimize nonspecific binding of human serum, by employing incubation buffers containing animal serum, Tween 20, skim milk, and a low pH washing buffer. This new and improved method, termed anti-HBs qELISA_v.2, showed accurate quantification of plasma-derived hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and was comparable to results obtained with commercial ELISA (r = 0.93) and RIA (r = 0.85) kits. Further, the GC1102 in human serum could be precisely measured using the anti-HBs qELISA_v.2 without limitations of nonspecific binding. PMID: 30275774 [PubMed]

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A New ELISA to Overcome the Pitfalls in Quantification of Recombinant Human Monoclonal Anti-HBs, GC1102, by Commercial Immunoassays.

HCV core antigen as an alternative to HCV RNA testing in the era of direct-acting antivirals: retrospective screening and diagnostic cohort studies.

Posted by on 03 Oct 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles HCV core antigen as an alternative to HCV RNA testing in the era of direct-acting antivirals: retrospective screening and diagnostic cohort studies. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Sep 28;: Authors: van Tilborg M, Al Marzooqi SH, Wong WWL, Maan R, Vermehren J, Maasoumy B, Mazzulli T, Bolotin S, Garber G, Guerra F, Flud CR, Kowgier M, Janssen HL, de Knegt RJ, Pawlotsky JM, Cloherty GA, Duarte-Rojo A, Sarrazin C, Wedemeyer H, Feld JJ Abstract BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antivirals for chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection have reduced the need for on-treatment HCV RNA monitoring. We assessed the accuracy and cost implications of using HCV core antigen testing to replace HCV RNA testing for confirmation of diagnosis, on-treatment monitoring, and determination of sustained virological response (SVR). METHODS: In a retrospective screening cohort study, de-identified residual serum from unselected samples were obtained from commercial laboratories in Ontario, Canada. Samples from each 5-year age-sex band from birth years 1945-74 collected from Aug 1, 2014, to Feb 28, 2015, were included. All samples that tested positive for HCV antibodies, and 10% of samples that tested negative for HCV antibodies, were tested for HCV core antigen and HCV RNA. A retrospective clinical cohort study was also done using blood samples from patients with confirmed HCV infection collected at four tertiary academic centres: one in Canada, two in Germany, and one in the USA. For assessment of SVR, we included samples from patients who started direct-acting antiviral-based treatment (excluding telaprevir and boceprevir) with or without peginterferon, ribavirin, or both, from Jan 1, 2014, to March 31, 2015. To ensure inclusion of adequate numbers for analysis, patients who relapsed after any treatment regimen were included. Serum samples included in the study were from baseline, week 4 on-treatment (only for patients treated with direct-acting antivirals), end of treatment, and week 12 or 24 of follow-up. The sensitivity and specificity of core antigen testing as a diagnostic tool was assessed in the screening cohort, using HCV RNA as a reference. The sensitivity and specificity of core antigen testing as well as its concordance with HCV RNA testing in the clinical cohort was assessed at baseline, week 4 on-treatment, and at weeks 12 or 24 after the end of treatment in patients undergoing therapy with direct-acting antivirals. The cost-effectiveness of core antigen testing with and without confirmatory HCV RNA testing for negative samples was also assessed. FINDINGS: From 10 006 samples in the screening cohort, 75 of 80 viraemic (HCV RNA-positive) samples tested positive for HCV core antigen (sensitivity 94%, 95% CI 86-98), and none of the 993 HCV RNA-negative samples tested positive for HCV core antigen (specificity 100%, 95% CI 94-100). The five viraemic samples that tested negative for HCV core antigen had low corresponding HCV RNA concentrations. In the clinical cohort, two (1%) of 202 baseline samples tested negative for HCV core antigen; one had a low HCV RNA concentration (468 IU/mL), the other had a high HCV RNA concentration (>2 000 000 IU/mL). By week 4 of treatment, HCV core antigen concentrations decreased in all patients but were not predictive of SVR. Although there was good concordance between HCV RNA and HCV core antigen results at 12 weeks after the end of treatment (r=0·97; p<0·0001), three of the 148 patients who achieved SVR at 12 weeks tested HCV core antigen positive. 12 weeks after the end of treatment, HCV core antigen was undetectable in one (1%) of 71 samples from patients who were identified as having relapsed according to HCV RNA detection. On-treatment and end-of-treatment testing of core antigen or HCV RNA provided little clinical value. The use of HCV core antigen testing as a confirmatory diagnostic strategy was cost saving relative to HCV RNA testing, with a reduction of CAD$0·29-3·70 per patient screened depending on whether HCV RNA testing was used to confirm HCV core antigen-negative results. INTERPRETATION: These data support the use of HCV core antigen testing to document HCV viraemia in a cost-saving diagnostic algorithm. In a treatment setting, HCV core antigen testing can be used instead of HCV RNA testing for diagnosis and documentation of treatment adherence, but it might not be adequate to determine SVR. This approach might improve access to care, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. FUNDING: Abbott Diagnostics and Toronto Centre for Liver Disease. PMID: 30274834 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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HCV core antigen as an alternative to HCV RNA testing in the era of direct-acting antivirals: retrospective screening and diagnostic cohort studies.

Improvements in the Management of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection.

Posted by on 02 Oct 2018 | Tagged as: Hepatitis B Alternative Medicine

Related Articles Improvements in the Management of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Sep 29;: Authors: Liu LZ, Sun J, Hou J, Chan HLY Abstract INTRODUCTION: The primary goals of managing chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are prevention of liver-related complications and reduction of mortality. Universal vaccination has dramatically reduced the incidence of new infection, but the management of existing CHB patients are still challenging. Areas covered: This review compares the similarities and differences among the latest published regional guidelines on the indications and choices of antiviral therapy. We have summarized advances in virological biomarkers and non-invasive tests for liver fibrosis in disease assessment. Benefits and remaining challenges of current standard of care by peginterferon and nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) have been presented . Data on combination therapy of peginterferon and NA in seeking functional cure of the disease is also critically discussed. We have also described the improvement in the management of CHB at pregnancy and prophylaxis in patients on chemotherapy and immunosuppressants. Expert commentary: Controversies exist in the assessment of disease activity for selection patients for treatment as well as on the use of tenofovir alafenamide as a safe and cost-effective alternative to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Though combination therapy of peginterferon and NA has induced HBsAg seroclearance in a small proportion of patients, peginterferon is not preferred in the future trend of drug development. PMID: 30269597 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Improvements in the Management of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection.

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